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Comments on Triassi et al. Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the “Triangle of Death”. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1216–1236

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

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      Wasting lives: the effects of toxic waste exposure on health. The case of Campania, Southern Italy.

      Three decades of illegal practices of waste dumping and consequent environmental abuse have made the Campania region of Southern Italy a unique case in the context of waste-related health outcomes. Scientific evidence is mounting in support of a significant increase in cancer mortality and malformation occurrence in specific areas of the Campania region, where improper waste management and illegal waste trafficking have been repeatedly documented. However, the currently available evidence suffers from limitations mainly due to study design, lack of consideration of confounders and quality of the exposure data. Recent economic studies have shown the economic benefits of reclaiming toxic waste sites in Campania. Future perspectives include the adoption of different study designs, use of biomarkers and a molecular approach. Current knowledge, both scientific and economic, might be of help in orienting the short and long term governmental policy on waste related health outcomes at a regional level.
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        Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the “Triangle of Death”

        The term “triangle of death” was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the “triangle of death”, bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms “waste”, “Campania”, “Naples”, “triangle of death” and “human biomonitoring”. Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population.
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          Italian "Triangle of death" linked to waste crisis.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of Salerno, Via Salvatore Allende, 84081 Baronissi Salerno, Italy; E-Mail: maubiful@ 123456unisa.it ; Tel.: +39-089-96-9742; Fax: +39-089-96-9602
            Contributors
            Role: Academic Editor
            Journal
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            ijerph
            International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
            MDPI
            1661-7827
            1660-4601
            19 March 2015
            March 2015
            : 12
            : 3
            : 3358-3359
            25809515
            4377969
            10.3390/ijerph120303358
            ijerph-12-03358
            (Academic Editor)
            © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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