There is converging evidence from neuropsychological studies that growth hormone (GH) is associated with cognitive function. The aim of the current study was to review the existing neuropsychological literature for studies in which cognitive assessment had been conducted in patients with GH deficiency (GHD), and where change in cognitive function had been assessed following treatment with GH. Studies that have investigated relationships between GH and cognitive function and those that have developed methodological and statistical approaches that could be useful in future GH studies were identified. In this review, GH levels were found to be associated with cognitive function. Untreated individuals with GHD showed reliable impairment in memory and attentional functions when compared with matched controls. Appropriately designed prospective studies also indicated that cognitive function improved with GH treatment. It was concluded that individuals with GHD do show cognitive impairment and that this is ameliorated to some extent by GH treatment. It is now important to establish the clinical importance of these findings, and further work is required to understand better the nature, magnitude and meaning of GH-related cognitive impairments and improvements.