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      Effect of Urate-Lowering Therapy on Cardiovascular and Kidney Outcomes : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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          Abstract

          Background and objectives

          Several clinical practice guidelines noted the potential benefits of urate-lowering therapy on cardiovascular disease and CKD progression; however, the effect of this regimen remains uncertain. In this systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of urate-lowering therapy on major adverse cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, kidney failure events, BP, and GFR.

          Design, setting, participants, & measurements

          We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane databases for trials published through July 2020. We included prospective, randomized, controlled trials assessing the effects of urate-lowering therapy for at least 6 months on cardiovascular or kidney outcomes. Relevant information was extracted into a spreadsheet by two authors independently. Treatment effects were summarized using random effects meta-analysis.

          Results

          We identified 28 trials including a total of 6458 participants with 506 major adverse cardiovascular events and 266 kidney failure events. Overall urate-lowering therapy did not show benefits on major adverse cardiovascular events (risk ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.18) and all-cause mortality (risk ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.39) or kidney failure (risk ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.54). Nevertheless, urate-lowering therapy attenuated the decline in the slope of GFR (weighted mean difference, 1.18 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 per year; 95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 1.91) and lowered the mean BP (systolic BP: weighted mean difference, −3.45 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, −6.10 to −0.80; diastolic BP: weighted mean difference, −2.02 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, −3.25 to −0.78). There was no significant difference (risk ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.94 to 1.08) in the risk of adverse events between the participants receiving urate-lowering therapy and the control group.

          Conclusions

          Urate-lowering therapy did not produce benefits on the clinical outcomes, including major adverse cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and kidney failure. Thus, there is insufficient evidence to support urate lowering in patients to improve kidney and cardiovascular outcomes.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement

          David Moher and colleagues introduce PRISMA, an update of the QUOROM guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses
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            Meta-analysis in clinical trials

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              Use of allopurinol in slowing the progression of renal disease through its ability to lower serum uric acid level.

              Hyperuricemia is associated strongly with the development of hypertension, renal disease, and progression. Allopurinol decreases serum uric acid levels by inhibiting the enzyme xanthine oxidase. We hypothesized that administrating allopurinol to decrease serum uric acid levels to the normal range in hyperuricemic patients with chronic kidney disease may be of benefit in decreasing blood pressure and slowing the rate of renal disease progression in these patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of 54 hyperuricemic patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with allopurinol, 100 to 300 mg/d, or to continue the usual therapy for 12 months. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. We define our study end points as: (1) stable kidney function with less than 40% increase in serum creatinine level, (2) impaired renal function with creatinine level increase greater than 40% of baseline value, (3) initiation of dialysis therapy, and (4) death. One patient in the treatment group dropped out because of skin allergy to allopurinol. Serum uric acid levels were significantly decreased in subjects treated with allopurinol, from 9.75 +/- 1.18 mg/dL (0.58 +/- 0.07 mmol/L) to 5.88 +/- 1.01 mg/dL (0.35 +/- 0.06 mmol/L; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure at the end of the study comparing the 2 groups. There was a trend toward a lower serum creatinine level in the treatment group compared with controls after 12 months of therapy, although it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.08). Overall, 4 of 25 patients (16%) in the allopurinol group reached the combined end points of significant deterioration in renal function and dialysis dependence compared with 12 of 26 patients (46.1%) in the control group (P = 0.015). Allopurinol therapy significantly decreases serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. Its use is safe and helps preserve kidney function during 12 months of therapy compared with controls. Results of this study need to be confirmed with an additional prospective trial involving a larger cohort of patients to determine the long-term efficacy of allopurinol therapy and in specific chronic kidney disease subpopulations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
                CJASN
                American Society of Nephrology (ASN)
                1555-9041
                1555-905X
                November 06 2020
                November 06 2020
                November 06 2020
                October 14 2020
                : 15
                : 11
                : 1576-1586
                Article
                10.2215/CJN.05190420
                © 2020

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