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      Dilated cardiomyopathy and neonatal lethality in mutant mice lacking manganese superoxide dismutase.

      Nature genetics

      Acidosis, enzymology, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Base Sequence, Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, genetics, Electron Transport Complex IV, analysis, Gene Targeting, Genes, Lethal, Homozygote, Lipid Peroxidation, Lipids, Liver, chemistry, Mice, Mice, Mutant Strains, Mitochondria, Heart, ultrastructure, Mitochondria, Muscle, Molecular Sequence Data, Muscle, Skeletal, Sequence Deletion, Succinate Dehydrogenase, Superoxide Dismutase, metabolism

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          Abstract

          The Sod2 gene for Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an intramitochondrial free radical scavenging enzyme that is the first line of defense against superoxide produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation, was inactivated by homologous recombination. Homozygous mutant mice die within the first 10 days of life with a dilated cardiomyopathy, accumulation of lipid in liver and skeletal muscle, and metabolic acidosis. Cytochemical analysis revealed a severe reduction in succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) and aconitase (a TCA cycle enzyme) activities in the heart and, to a lesser extent, in other organs. These findings indicate that MnSOD is required for normal biological function of tissues by maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial enzymes susceptible to direct inactivation by superoxide.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Extension of life-span by overexpression of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Drosophila melanogaster.

          The hypothesis that oxygen free radicals are causally involved in the aging process was tested by a study of the effects of simultaneous overexpression of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase. As compared to diploid controls, transgenic flies carrying three copies of each of these genes exhibited as much as a one-third extension of life-span, a longer mortality rate doubling time, a lower amount of protein oxidative damage, and a delayed loss in physical performance. Results provide direct support for the free radical hypothesis of aging.
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            NMDA-dependent superoxide production and neurotoxicity.

            Neuronal injury resulting from acute brain insults and some neurodegenerative diseases implicates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. The fact that antioxidants reduce some types of brain damage suggests that oxygen radicals may have a role. It has been shown that mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme catalysing superoxide (O2.-) detoxification in the cell, are linked to a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we report that O2.- is produced upon NMDA receptor stimulation in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to assess O2.- production that was due in part to the release of arachidonic acid. Activation of kainic acid receptors, or voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, did not produce detectable O2.-. We also find that the nitrone DMPO (5,5-dimethyl pyrroline 1-oxide), used as a spin trap, is more efficient than the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NG-nitro-arginine, in reducing NMDA-induced neuronal death in these cultures.
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              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Mutation of a nuclear succinate dehydrogenase gene results in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency.

              We now report a mutation in the nuclear-encoded flavoprotein (Fp) subunit gene of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in two siblings with complex II deficiency presenting as Leigh syndrome. Both patients were homozygous for an Arg554Trp substitution in the Fp subunit. Their parents (first cousins) were heterozygous for the mutation that occurred in a conserved domain of the protein and was absent from 120 controls. The deleterious effect of the Arg to Trp substitution on the catalytic activity of SDH was observed in a SDH- yeast strain transformed with mutant Fp cDNA. The Fp subunit gene is duplicated in the human genome (3q29; 5p15), with only the gene on chromosome 5 expressed in human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. This is the first report of a nuclear gene mutation causing a mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                7493016
                10.1038/ng1295-376

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