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      Zinc en la terapia del síndrome de déficit de atención e hiperactividad en niños: Un estudio controlado aleatorio preliminar Translated title: Zinc in the therapy of the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in children: A preliminar randomized controlled trial

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          Abstract

          El síndrome de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (ADHD) es un trastorno neurológico /conductual que se inicia en la infancia. Se ha propuesto que el zinc tendría un potencial rol como terapia adjunta para el ADHD. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con zinc sobre la conducta, como terapia complementaria al metilfenidato, en niños con ADHD. En un estudio controlado, doble ciego, se seleccionaron 40 pacientes con criterios clínicos y psicométricos de ADHD, (31 niños, 9 niñas, 7-14 años de edad). Ellos fueron seleccionados aleatoriamente para recibir ya sea metilfenidato 0,3 mg/kg/d + placebo (sacarosa) (grupo placebo, GPL), o metilfenidato 0,3 mg/kg/d + zinc (sulfato) 10 mg/d (grupo Zn, GZN) por 6 semanas; se excluyeron 4 niños. Se tomó una muestra de 3 mL de sangre en el tiempo 0 y a las 6 semanas para el análisis de Zn plasmático; se aplicó en ambos tiempos a padres y profesores la escala abreviada de Conners para ADHD. Entre los resultados, El Zn plasmático fue normal en el tiempo 0 en ambos grupos, disminuyendo después de 6 sem., especialmente en el grupo GPL (GPL: 95,9 ± 21,5 a 77,9 ± 15,5; GZN: 90.3 ± 9.1 a 85,0 ± 12,0 μg/dl, NS). El test de Conners aplicado por los profesores mostró una aparente mejoría en GZN: GPL: 18 (9-28) a 16 puntos (2-26); GZN: 19 (6-24) a 11 puntos (3-23) (p= 0,07), sin mejoría en el Conners aplicado por los padres: GPL: 19 (7-25) a 13 (3-22); GZN: 19 (7-25) a 11 (2-19). Se concluye que se observa una disminución en las concentraciones plasmáticas de Zn en ambos grupos, pero mayor en el grupo placebo. Con el suplemento de zinc se observa una aparente mejoría en los síntomas de ADHD, de acuerdo con la evaluación de Conners aplicada por profesores. Se requiere avanzar en el estudio de esta probable interacción entre zinc y metilfenidato.

          Translated abstract

          The attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological/behavioral disorder which begins in childhood. Zinc has a potential role as an adjuvant therapy for ADHD. The objective was to evaluate the effect of Zn supplementation on behavior, as a complementary therapy to metylphenidate, in pediatrics patients with ADHD. In a controlled, double blind design, 40 patients with clinical criteria of ADHD (DSMIV) and psychometric evaluation (WISC-R), were selected (31 boys and 9 girls, 7-14 years of age). They were randomized to receive methylphenidate 0.3 mg/kg/d + placebo (sucrose) (group placebo, GPL) or methylphenidate 0.3 mg/kg/d + zinc (sulfate) 10 mg/d (group Zn, GZN) for 6 weeks. A blood sample was drawn at time 0 and 6 weeks, for plasma Zn analysis. The teacher and parent ADHD rating scale (Conners` global index, CGI) was applied at both times. Among the results, plasma Zn was normal at time 0, decreasing especially in the GPL after 6 weeks (GPL: 95.9 ± 21.5 to 77.9 ± 15.5; GZN: 90.3 ± 9.1 to 85.0± 12.0 μg/dL; NS). The CGI by teachers showed a non-significant improvement with Zn: GPL: 18 (9- 28) to 16 points (2-26); GZN: 19 (6-24) to 11 points (3-23) (p=0.07); no significant difference in the CGI by parents by groups was found: GPL: 19 (7-25) to 13 (3- 22); GZN: 19(7-25) to 11(2-19). We conclude that a decrease in plasma Zn levels in both groups was found, greater in the placebo group. An apparent improvement in ADHD signs in children was observed with the Zn supplementation, according to the Conners global index by teachers.

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          Most cited references35

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          Variables that affect the clinical use and abuse of methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD.

          Methylphenidate, the most common treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), increases extracellular dopamine in the brain, which is associated with its reinforcing as well as its therapeutic effects. The authors evaluated variables that distinguish these two properties. The brain imaging and clinical literatures were analyzed to identify variables that contribute to the abuse liability as well as to the clinical efficacy of methylphenidate. Four variables were identified. 1) Dose--there is a threshold for methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases to be perceived as reinforcing and to produce therapeutic effects. 2) Pharmacokinetics--the reinforcing effects of methylphenidate are associated with rapid changes in serum concentrations and presumably fast dopamine increases (as achieved with intravenous injection or insufflation), whereas the therapeutic effects are associated with slowly ascending serum concentrations and presumably smoothly rising dopamine levels (as achieved with oral administration). 3) Individual differences--sensitivity to methylphenidate varies across individuals and sets a threshold for blood and brain levels required for reinforcing effects (drug liking) and for therapeutic effects (symptom reduction). 4) Context--the effects of methylphenidate are modulated by different settings in abuse (rituals of self-administration and powerful conditioning) and in clinical use (external demands of low activity and focused attention). Reinforcing effects occur when methylphenidate elicits large and fast dopamine increases that mimic those of phasic dopamine cell firing, whereas therapeutic effects occur when methylphenidate elicits slow, steady-state dopamine increases that mimic those of tonic firing. Thus, the characteristics of clinical use (low doses administered orally and titrated for therapeutic effects) constrain methylphenidate's abuse.
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            Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: a review.

            Amphetamine stimulants have been used medically since early in the twentieth century, but they have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic. Although they have long been used effectively to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, amphetamines are now being prescribed increasingly as maintenance therapy for ADHD and narcolepsy in adults, considerably extending the period of potential exposure. Effects of prolonged stimulant treatment have not been fully explored, and understanding such effects is a research priority. Because the pharmacokinetics of amphetamines differ between children and adults, reevaluation of the potential for adverse effects of chronic treatment of adults is essential. Despite information on the effects of stimulants in laboratory animals, profound species differences in susceptibility to stimulant-induced neurotoxicity underscore the need for systematic studies of prolonged human exposure. Early amphetamine treatment has been linked to slowing in height and weight growth in some children. Because the number of prescriptions for amphetamines has increased several fold over the past decade, an amphetamine-containing formulation is the most commonly prescribed stimulant in North America, and it is noteworthy that amphetamines are also the most abused prescription medications. Although early treatment does not increase risk for substance abuse, few studies have tracked the compliance and usage profiles of individuals who began amphetamine treatment as adults. Overall, there is concern about risk for slowed growth in young patients who are dosed continuously, and for substance abuse in patients first medicated in late adolescence or adulthood. Although most adult patients also use amphetamines effectively and safely, occasional case reports indicate that prescription use can produce marked psychological adverse events, including stimulant-induced psychosis. Assessments of central toxicity and adverse psychological effects during late adulthood and senescence of adults who receive prolonged courses of amphetamine treatment are warranted. Finally, identification of the biological factors that confer risk and those that offer protection is also needed to better specify the parameters of safe, long-term, therapeutic administration of amphetamines to adults.
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              Effect of stimulants on height and weight: a review of the literature.

              Stimulant medications are effective treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but concerns remain about their effects on growth. We provide a quantitative analysis of longitudinal studies about deficits in expected growth among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with stimulant medication. Study selection criteria were use of DSM criteria or clear operational definitions for hyperactivity or minimal brain dysfunction; outcome measures including raw, standardized, or percentile measurement of change in height and/or weight; first assessment of effects on growth occurred during childhood; and follow-up for at least 1 year. For issues not suitable for quantitative analyses, we provide a systematic, qualitative review. The quantitative analyses showed that treatment with stimulant medication led to statistically significant delays in height and weight. This review found statistically significant evidence of attenuation of these deficits over time. The qualitative review suggested that growth deficits may be dose dependent, deficits may not differ between methylphenidate and amphetamine, treatment cessation may lead to normalization of growth, and further research should assess the idea that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder itself may be associated with dysregulated growth. Treatment with stimulants in childhood modestly reduced expected height and weight. Although these effects attenuate over time and some data suggest that ultimate adult growth parameters are not affected, more work is needed to clarify the effects of continuous treatment from childhood to adulthood. Although physicians should monitor height, deficits in height and weight do not appear to be a clinical concern for most children treated with stimulants.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                September 2011
                : 61
                : 3
                : 242-246
                Article
                S0004-06222011000300002
                e7a98135-6470-4696-88a9-47c62a3827bd

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Zinc,attention deficit,hyperactivity,methylphenidate,Conners,déficit de atención,hiperactividad,metilfenidato

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