Two unrelated patients of Pakistani origin presented with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) at 4 months and 3 years of age, respectively. While the younger patient failed to thrive and suffered from early renal failure, the older one showed a relatively benign history with urolithiasis as the main feature of the disease. In both patients the diagnosis was confirmed by assessment of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase catalytic and immunoreactivity in liver biopsy specimens. The underlying genetic defect was found to be a combined deletion and insertion in exon 8 which alters the reading frame of the protein. The nucleotide change introduces a Stu1 restriction site which facilitated typing of additional family members. Both patients and a further affected brother were homozygous for this mutation, while their parents were heterozygous for it. This mutation is the first deletion/insertion identified in PH1. Although rare in our PH1 patient cohort (2.5% of alleles), the finding of 2 homozygous apparently unrelated individuals of the same ethnic origin suggests that it may prove worthwhile to screen other Asian patients for this mutation. These PH1 cases present further evidence that factors other than genotype contribute significantly to the clinical presentation and severity of PH1.