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      Muscle-derived interleukin-6: possible biological effects

      , ,
      The Journal of Physiology
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced locally in working skeletal muscle and can account for the increase in plasma IL-6 during exercise. The production of IL-6 during exercise is related to the intensity and duration of the exercise, and low muscle glycogen content stimulates the production. Muscle-derived IL-6 is released into the circulation during exercise in high amounts and is likely to work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting an effect on the liver and adipose tissue, thereby contributing to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis during exercise and mediating exercise-induced lipolysis. Muscle-derived IL-6 may also work to inhibit the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha. The latter cytokine is produced by adipose tissue and inflammatory cells and appears to play a pathogenetic role in insulin resistance and atherogenesis.

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          Most cited references68

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          Exercise and the immune system: regulation, integration, and adaptation.

          Stress-induced immunological reactions to exercise have stimulated much research into stress immunology and neuroimmunology. It is suggested that exercise can be employed as a model of temporary immunosuppression that occurs after severe physical stress. The exercise-stress model can be easily manipulated experimentally and allows for the study of interactions between the nervous, the endocrine, and the immune systems. This review focuses on mechanisms underlying exercise-induced immune changes such as neuroendocrinological factors including catecholamines, growth hormone, cortisol, beta-endorphin, and sex steroids. The contribution of a metabolic link between skeletal muscles and the lymphoid system is also reviewed. The mechanisms of exercise-associated muscle damage and the initiation of the inflammatory cytokine cascade are discussed. Given that exercise modulates the immune system in healthy individuals, considerations of the clinical ramifications of exercise in the prevention of diseases for which the immune system has a role is of importance. Accordingly, drawing on the experimental, clinical, and epidemiological literature, we address the interactions between exercise and infectious diseases as well as exercise and neoplasia within the context of both aging and nutrition.
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            Complementary DNA for a novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulin.

            When stimulated with antigen, B cells are influenced by T cells to proliferate and differentiate into antibody-forming cells. Since it was reported that soluble factors could replace certain functions of helper T cells in the antibody response, several different kinds of lymphokines and monokines have been reported in B-cell growth and differentiation. Among these, human B-cell differentiation factor (BCDF or BSF-2) has been shown to induce the final maturation of B cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. BSF-2 was purified to homogeneity and its partial NH2-terminal amino-acid sequence was determined. These studies indicated that BSF-2 is functionally and structurally unlike other known proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural analysis and functional expression of the cDNA encoding human BSF-2. The primary sequence of BSF-2 deduced from the cDNA reveals that BSF-2 is a novel interleukin consisting of 184 amino acids.
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              Production of interleukin-6 in contracting human skeletal muscles can account for the exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6.

              1. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration is increased with exercise and it has been demonstrated that contracting muscles can produce IL-The question addressed in the present study was whether the IL-6 production by contracting skeletal muscle is of such a magnitude that it can account for the IL-6 accumulating in the blood. 2. This was studied in six healthy males, who performed one-legged dynamic knee extensor exercise for 5 h at 25 W, which represented 40% of peak power output (Wmax). Arterial-femoral venous (a-fv) differences over the exercising and the resting leg were obtained before and every hour during the exercise. Leg blood flow was measured in parallel by the ultrasound Doppler technique. IL-6 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 3. Arterial plasma concentrations for IL-6 increased 19-fold compared to rest. The a-fv difference for IL-6 over the exercising leg followed the same pattern as did the net IL-6 release. Over the resting leg, there was no significant a-fv difference or net IL-6 release. The work was produced by 2.5 kg of active muscle, which means that during the last 2 h of exercise, the median IL-6 production was 6.8 ng min-1 (kg active muscle)-1 (range, 3.96-9.69 ng min-1 kg-1). 4. The net IL-6 release from the muscle over the last 2 h of exercise was 17-fold higher than the elevation in arterial IL-6 concentration and at 5 h of exercise the net release during 1 min was half of the IL-6 content in the plasma. This indicates a very high turnover of IL-6 during muscular exercise. We suggest that IL-6 produced by skeletal contracting muscle contributes to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis during prolonged exercise.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Physiology
                Wiley
                00223751
                October 2001
                October 2001
                August 05 2004
                : 536
                : 2
                : 329-337
                Article
                10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.0329c.xd
                2278876
                11600669
                e8f77605-f739-474f-841f-65e55c6ccf15
                © 2004

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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