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      Outbreak of Serratia marcescens in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mexico


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          We describe an outbreak of Serratia marcescens ( S. marcescens) infection in the neonatal intensive care unit at Women's Hospital in Sinaloa, Mexico.


          In April 2021, an outbreak of S. marcescens infection was identified. A case was identified as any patient who tested positive for S. marcescens and showed signs of an infectious process.


          S. marcescens was isolated from the blood cultures of 15 neonates with clinical signs of neonatal sepsis. Statistical analysis showed that all neonates had an invasive medical device. The problem was controlled after hospital hygiene and sanitation measures were strengthened.


          The study provides evidence of an outbreak of nosocomial bacteremia due to the cross-transmission of S. marcescens. The findings highlight the need for hospitals to implement strict hygiene measures, especially regarding hand washing, to prevent future outbreaks.

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          Sepsis definitions: time for change.

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            Serratia infections: from military experiments to current practice.

            Serratia species, in particular Serratia marcescens, are significant human pathogens. S. marcescens has a long and interesting taxonomic, medical experimentation, military experimentation, and human clinical infection history. The organisms in this genus, particularly S. marcescens, were long thought to be nonpathogenic. Because S. marcescens was thought to be a nonpathogen and is usually red pigmented, the U.S. military conducted experiments that attempted to ascertain the spread of this organism released over large areas. In the process, members of both the public and the military were exposed to S. marcescens, and this was uncovered by the press in the 1970s, leading to U.S. congressional hearings. S. marcescens was found to be a certain human pathogen by the mid-1960s. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens have been isolated as causative agents of numerous outbreaks and opportunistic infections, and the association of these organisms with point sources such as medical devices and various solutions given to hospitalized patients is striking. Serratia species appear to be common environmental organisms, and this helps to explain the large number of nosocomial infections due to these bacteria. Since many nosocomial infections are caused by multiply antibiotic-resistant strains of S. marcescens, this increases the danger to hospitalized patients, and hospital personnel should be vigilant in preventing nosocomial outbreaks due to this organism. S. marcescens, and probably other species in the genus, carries several antibiotic resistance determinants and is also capable of acquiring resistance genes. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens are usually identified well in the clinical laboratory, but the other species are rare enough that laboratory technologists may not recognize them. 16S rRNA gene sequencing may enable better identification of some of the less common Serratia species.
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              Impact of delayed admission to intensive care units on mortality of critically ill patients: a cohort study

              Introduction When the number of patients who require intensive care is greater than the number of beds available, intensive care unit (ICU) entry flow is obstructed. This phenomenon has been associated with higher mortality rates in patients that are not admitted despite their need, and in patients that are admitted but are waiting for a bed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if a delay in ICU admission affects mortality for critically ill patients. Methods A prospective cohort of adult patients admitted to the ICU of our institution between January and December 2005 were analyzed. Patients for whom a bed was available were immediately admitted; when no bed was available, patients waited for ICU admission. ICU admission was classified as either delayed or immediate. Confounding variables examined were: age, sex, originating hospital ward, ICU diagnosis, co-morbidity, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, therapeutic intervention, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. All patients were followed until hospital discharge. Results A total of 401 patients were evaluated; 125 (31.2%) patients were immediately admitted and 276 (68.8%) patients had delayed admission. There was a significant increase in ICU mortality rates with a delay in ICU admission (P = 0.002). The fraction of mortality risk attributable to ICU delay was 30% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.2% to 44.8%). Each hour of waiting was independently associated with a 1.5% increased risk of ICU death (hazard ratio (HR): 1.015; 95% CI 1.006 to 1.023; P = 0.001). Conclusions There is a significant association between time to admission and survival rates. Early admission to the ICU is more likely to produce positive outcomes.

                Author and article information

                Adv Med
                Adv Med
                Advances in Medicine
                21 September 2023
                : 2023
                : 3281910
                1The Women's Hospital, Secretariat of Health, Culiacan Sinaloa 80020, Mexico
                2School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Culiacan Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
                3Pediatric Hospital of Sinaloa, Culiacan Sinaloa 80200, Mexico
                4The Sinaloa State Public Health Laboratory, Secretariat of Health, Culiacan Sinaloa 80020, Mexico
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Gagandeep Saggu

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Martha Guel-Gomez et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 28 July 2023
                : 12 September 2023
                : 14 September 2023
                Research Article


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