New additions to the knowledge of the subfamily Eumeninae in Russia are provided. Stenodynerus rossicus Fateryga & Kochetkov, sp. nov. is described from Amurskaya Province and Altai Republic. Three species of eumenine wasps are reported from Russia for the first time: Onychopterocheilus kiritshenkoi (Kostylev, 1940), Pterocheilus quaesitus (Morawitz, 1895), and Stenodynerus chitgarensis Giordani Soika, 1970. Ancistrocerus dusmetiolus (Strand, 1914) is excluded from the fauna of Russia; the previous records of this species were based on a misidentification of another similar species, i. e., A. raddei (Kostylev, 1940). The taxonomic status of A. raddei, however, is unclear: its differences from A. dusmetiolus, including the material from Central Asia described as A. alius (Kostylev, 1935), are mainly in the color pattern but not in the structure (including the structure of the male genitalia). New and confirmative regional records for 20 species are reported. The known fauna of Russia currently numbers 34 genera and 165 species of Eumeninae s. l. (including Raphiglossinae and Zethinae). In addition, Eumenes tripunctatus (Christ, 1791) is reported for the first time from Afghanistan; the first data on the nesting of this species are also reported.