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      New records of eumenine wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) from Russia, with description of a new species of Stenodynerus de Saussure, 1863

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          New additions to the knowledge of the subfamily Eumeninae in Russia are provided. Stenodynerus rossicus Fateryga & Kochetkov, sp. nov. is described from Amurskaya Province and Altai Republic. Three species of eumenine wasps are reported from Russia for the first time: Onychopterocheilus kiritshenkoi (Kostylev, 1940), Pterocheilus quaesitus (Morawitz, 1895), and Stenodynerus chitgarensis Giordani Soika, 1970. Ancistrocerus dusmetiolus (Strand, 1914) is excluded from the fauna of Russia; the previous records of this species were based on a misidentification of another similar species, i. e., A. raddei (Kostylev, 1940). The taxonomic status of A. raddei, however, is unclear: its differences from A. dusmetiolus, including the material from Central Asia described as A. alius (Kostylev, 1935), are mainly in the color pattern but not in the structure (including the structure of the male genitalia). New and confirmative regional records for 20 species are reported. The known fauna of Russia currently numbers 34 genera and 165 species of Eumeninae s. l. (including Raphiglossinae and Zethinae). In addition, Eumenes tripunctatus (Christ, 1791) is reported for the first time from Afghanistan; the first data on the nesting of this species are also reported.

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          Transcriptome and target DNA enrichment sequence data provide new insights into the phylogeny of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Vespidae).

          The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. The phylogenetic relationships of the major vespid wasp lineages (i.e., subfamilies and tribes) have been investigated repeatedly by analyzing behavioral and morphological traits as well as nucleotide sequences of few selected genes with largely incongruent results. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships using a phylogenomic approach. We sequenced the transcriptomes of 24 vespid wasp and eight outgroup species and exploited the transcript sequences for design of probes for enriching 913 single-copy protein-coding genes to complement the transcriptome data with nucleotide sequence data from additional 25 ethanol-preserved vespid species. Results from phylogenetic analyses of the combined sequence data revealed the eusocial subfamily Stenogastrinae to be the sister group of all remaining Vespidae, while the subfamily Eumeninae turned out to be paraphyletic. Of the three currently recognized eumenine tribes, Odynerini is paraphyletic with respect to Eumenini, and Zethini is paraphyletic with respect to Polistinae and Vespinae. Our results are in conflict with the current tribal subdivision of Eumeninae and thus, we suggest granting subfamily rank to the two major clades of "Zethini": Raphiglossinae and Zethinae. Overall, our findings corroborate the hypothesis of two independent origins of eusociality in vespid wasps and suggest a single origin of using masticated and salivated plant material for building nests by Raphiglossinae, Zethinae, Polistinae, and Vespinae. The inferred phylogenetic relationships and the open access vespid wasp target DNA enrichment probes will provide a valuable tool for future comparative studies on species of the family Vespidae, including their genomes, life styles, evolution of sociality, and co-evolution with other organisms.
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            Phylogenomic Evidence Overturns Current Conceptions of Social Evolution in Wasps (Vespidae)

            Abstract The hypothesis that eusociality originated once in Vespidae has shaped interpretation of social evolution for decades and has driven the supposition that preimaginal morphophysiological differences between castes were absent at the outset of eusociality. Many researchers also consider casteless nest-sharing an antecedent to eusociality. Together, these ideas endorse a stepwise progression of social evolution in wasps (solitary → casteless nest-sharing → eusociality with rudimentary behavioral castes → eusociality with preimaginal caste-biasing (PCB) → morphologically differentiated castes). Here, we infer the phylogeny of Vespidae using sequence data generated via anchored hybrid enrichment from 378 loci across 136 vespid species and perform ancestral state reconstructions to test whether rudimentary and monomorphic castes characterized the initial stages of eusocial evolution. Our results reject the single origin of eusociality hypothesis, contest the supposition that eusociality emerged from a casteless nest-sharing ancestor, and suggest that eusociality in Polistinae + Vespinae began with castes having morphological differences. An abrupt appearance of castes with ontogenetically established morphophysiological differences conflicts with the current conception of stepwise social evolution and suggests that the climb up the ladder of sociality does not occur through sequential mutation. Phenotypic plasticity and standing genetic variation could explain how cooperative brood care evolved in concert with nest-sharing and how morphologically dissimilar castes arose without a rudimentary intermediate. Furthermore, PCB at the outset of eusociality implicates a subsocial route to eusociality in Polistinae + Vespinae, emphasizing the role of mother–daughter interactions and subfertility (i.e. the cost component of kin selection) in the origin of workers.
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              The Eumeninae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of Hong Kong (China), with description of two new species, two new synonymies and a key to the known taxa

              A total of 38 species belonging to 26 genera of Eumeninae are recorded from Hong Kong, among which two new species, namely Allorhynchium radiatum sp. nov. and Orientalicesa nigra sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Symmorphus tsushimanus Yamane, 1990 is newly recorded from China and its female is firstly described. Eighteen species are newly recorded for Hong Kong. Antepipona ferruginea Kim & Yamane, 2003 is synonymized with Antepipona rufescens (Smith, 1857) ( syn. nov. ) and Eumenes quadratus obsoletus Dover, 1926 is synonymised with Eumenes quadratus quadratus Smith, 1852 ( syn. nov. ). A checklist, a key and illustrations to Hong Kong Eumeninae are also provided.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                October 30 2020
                October 30 2020
                : 79
                : 89-109
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.79.57887
                © 2020

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