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      Power and Perspectives Not Taken

      1 , 2 , 3 , 3
      Psychological Science
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Four experiments and a correlational study explored the relationship between power and perspective taking. In Experiment 1, participants primed with high power were more likely than those primed with low power to draw an E on their forehead in a self-oriented direction, demonstrating less of an inclination to spontaneously adopt another person's visual perspective. In Experiments 2a and 2b, high-power participants were less likely than low-power participants to take into account that other people did not possess their privileged knowledge, a result suggesting that power leads individuals to anchor too heavily on their own vantage point, insufficiently adjusting to others' perspectives. In Experiment 3, high-power participants were less accurate than control participants in determining other people's emotion expressions; these results suggest a power-induced impediment to experiencing empathy. An additional study found a negative relationship between individual difference measures of power and perspective taking. Across these studies, power was associated with a reduced tendency to comprehend how other people see, think, and feel.

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          Most cited references24

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          Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favoritism.

          Using 3 experiments, the authors explored the role of perspective-taking in debiasing social thought. In the 1st 2 experiments, perspective-taking was contrasted with stereotype suppression as a possible strategy for achieving stereotype control. In Experiment 1, perspective-taking decreased stereotypic biases on both a conscious and a nonconscious task. In Experiment 2, perspective-taking led to both decreased stereotyping and increased overlap between representations of the self and representations of the elderly, suggesting activation and application of the self-concept in judgments of the elderly. In Experiment 3, perspective-taking reduced evidence of in-group bias in the minimal group paradigm by increasing evaluations of the out-group. The role of self-other overlap in producing prosocial outcomes and the separation of the conscious, explicit effects from the nonconscious, implicit effects of perspective-taking are discussed.
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            Perspective taking as egocentric anchoring and adjustment.

            The authors propose that people adopt others' perspectives by serially adjusting from their own. As predicted, estimates of others' perceptions were consistent with one's own but differed in a manner consistent with serial adjustment (Study 1). Participants were slower to indicate that another's perception would be different from--rather than similar to--their own (Study 2). Egocentric biases increased under time pressure (Study 2) and decreased with accuracy incentives (Study 3). Egocentric biases also increased when participants were more inclined to accept plausible values encountered early in the adjustment process than when inclined to reject them (Study 4). Finally, adjustments tend to be insufficient, in part, because people stop adjusting once a plausible estimate is reached (Study 5). ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)
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              The experience of power: Examining the effects of power on approach and inhibition tendencies.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychological Science
                Psychol Sci
                Wiley
                0956-7976
                1467-9280
                May 06 2016
                December 2006
                May 06 2016
                December 2006
                : 17
                : 12
                : 1068-1074
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Management and Organizations, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University
                [2 ]Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University
                [3 ]Graduate School of Business, Stanford University
                Article
                10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01824.x
                17201789
                ec2d2b38-2522-4c02-bec4-414a4ee15fe0
                © 2006

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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