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      Ultrasound biomicroscopic and conventional ultrasonographic study of ocular dimensions in primary angle-closure glaucoma.

      Ophthalmology

      Acute Disease, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Analysis of Variance, Anterior Chamber, ultrasonography, Biometry, Chronic Disease, Ciliary Body, Female, Glaucoma, Angle-Closure, Humans, Lens, Crystalline, Male, Microscopy, Middle Aged, Reproducibility of Results, Trabecular Meshwork

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          Abstract

          To determine the biometric findings of ocular structures in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). An observational case series with comparisons among three groups (patients with acute/intermittent PACG [A/I-PACG], patients with chronic PACG [C-PACG], and normal subjects [N]). A total of 54 white patients with PACG (13 male, 41 female) were studied: 10 with acute, 22 with intermittent, and 22 with chronic types of PACG. Forty-two normal white subjects (11 male, 31 female) were studied as control subjects. Only one eye was considered in each patient or subject. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and standardized A-scan ultrasonography (immersion technique) were performed in each patient during the same session or within 1 to 3 days. The following A-scan parameters were measured: anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL), lens/axial length factor (LAF), and relative lens position (RLP). Ten UBM parameters were measured, the most important of which were anterior chamber angle, trabecular-ciliary process distance (TCPD), angle opening distance at 500 microm from the scleral spur (AOD 500), and scleral-ciliary process angle (SCPA). Compared to normal subjects, the patients with PACG presented a shorter AL (A/I-PACG = 22.31 +/- 0.83 mm, C-PACG = 22.27 +/- 0.94 mm, N = 23.38 +/- 1.23 mm), a shallower ACD (A/I-PACG = 2.41 +/- 0.25 mm, C-PACG = 2.77 +/- 0.31 mm, N = 3.33 +/- 0.31 mm), a thicker lens (A/I-PACG = 5.10 +/- 0.33 mm, C-PACG = 4.92 +/- 0.27 mm, N = 4.60 +/- 0.53 mm), and a more anteriorly located lens (RLP values, A/I-PACG = 2.22 +/- 0.12, C-PACG = 2.34 +/- 0.16, N = 2.41 +/- 0.15). The LAF values in A/I-PACG, C-PACG, and N were 2.28 +/- 012, 2.20 +/- 0.11, and 1.97 +/- 0.12, respectively. Anterior chamber angle (A/I-PACG = 11.72 +/- 8.84, C-PACG = 19.87 +/- 9.83, N = 31.29 +/- 9.18 degrees) and SCPA (A/I-PACG = 28.71 +/- 4.02, C-PACG = 30.87 +/- 6.04, N = 53.13 +/- 9.58 degrees) were narrower, TCPD (A/I-PACG = 0.61 +/- 0.12 mm, C-PACG = 0.71 +/- 0.14 mm, N = 1.08 +/- 0.22 mm) and AOD 500 shorter (A/I-PACG = 0.13 +/- 0.09 mm, C-PACG = 0.21 +/- 0.10 mm, N = 0.36 +/- 0.11 mm) in patients with PACG. All the biometric differences proved statistically significant using the one-way analysis-of-variance test. In patients with PACG, the anterior segment is more crowded because of the presence of a thicker, more anteriorly located lens. The UBM confirms this crowding of the anterior segment, showing the forward rotation of the ciliary processes. A gradual progressive shift in anatomic characteristics is discernible on passing from normal to chronic PACG and then to acute/intermittent PACG eyes.

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          Journal
          9818611
          10.1016/S0161-6420(98)91132-0

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