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      Anatomical Alterations in Plant Tissues Induced by Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

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          Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) interact with plants in different ways, for example, through subtle feeding behavior, migrating destructively through infected tissues, or acting as virus-vectors for nepoviruses. They are all obligate biotrophic parasites as they derive their nutrients from living cells which they modify using pharyngeal gland secretions prior to food ingestion. Some of them can also shield themselves against plant defenses to sustain a relatively long lasting interaction while feeding. This paper is centered on cell types or organs that are newly induced in plants during PPN parasitism, including recent approaches to their study based on molecular biology combined with cell biology-histopathology. This issue has already been reviewed extensively for major PPNs (i.e., root-knot or cyst nematodes), but not for other genera (viz. Nacobbus aberrans, Rotylenchulus spp.). PPNs have evolved with plants and this co-evolution process has allowed the induction of new types of plant cells necessary for their parasitism. There are four basic types of feeding cells: (i) non-hypertrophied nurse cells; (ii) single giant cells; (iii) syncytia; and (iv) coenocytes. Variations in the structure of these cells within each group are also present between some genera depending on the nematode species viz. Meloidogyne or Rotylenchulus. This variability of feeding sites may be related in some way to PPN life style (migratory ectoparasites, sedentary ectoparasites, migratory ecto-endoparasites, migratory endoparasites, or sedentary endoparasites). Apart from their co-evolution with plants, the response of plant cells and roots are closely related to feeding behavior, the anatomy of the nematode (mainly stylet size, which could reach different types of cells in the plant), and the secretory fluids produced in the pharyngeal glands. These secretory fluids are injected through the stylet into perforated cells where they modify plant cytoplasm prior to food removal. Some species do not produce specialized feeding sites (viz. Ditylenchus, Subanguina), but may develop a specialized modification of the root system (e.g., unspecialized root galls or a profusion of roots). This review introduces new data on cell types and plant organs stimulated by PPNs using sources varying from traditional histopathology to new holistic methodologies.

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          Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.

          The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
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            Plant Pathology

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              The parasitome of the phytonematode Heterodera glycines.

              Parasitism genes expressed in the esophageal gland cells of phytonematodes encode secretions that control the complex process of plant parasitism. In the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, the parasitome, i.e., the secreted products of parasitism genes, facilitate nematode migration in soybean roots and mediate the modification of root cells into elaborate feeding cells required to support the growth and development of the nematode. With very few exceptions, the identities of these secretions are unknown, and the mechanisms of cyst nematode parasitism, therefore, remain obscure. The most direct and efficient approach for cloning parasitism genes and rapidly advancing our understanding of the molecular interactions during nematode parasitism of plants is to create gland cell-specific cDNA libraries using cytoplasm microaspirated from the esophageal gland cells of various parasitic stages. By combining expressed sequence tag analysis of a gland cell cDNA library with high throughput in situ expression localization of clones encoding secretory proteins, we obtained the first comprehensive parasitome profile for a parasitic nematode. We identified 51 new H. glycines gland-expressed candidate parasitism genes, of which 38 genes constitute completely novel sequences. Individual parasitome members showed distinct gland cell expression patterns throughout the parasitic cycle. The parasitome complexity discovered paints a more elaborate picture of host cellular events under specific control by the nematode parasite than previously hypothesized.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                16 November 2017
                : 8
                1Department of Crop Protection, Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) , Córdoba, Spain
                2Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Group, University of Castilla La Mancha , Toledo, Spain
                3A. P. S. Polyxena , Bari, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Brigitte Mauch-Mani, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Verónica Cabrera, National University of Cordoba, Argentina; Vojislava Grbic, University of Western Ontario, Canada

                *Correspondence: Juan E. Palomares-Rius palomaresje@ 123456ias.csic.es orcid.org/0000-0003-1776-8131

                This article was submitted to Plant Microbe Interactions, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2017 Palomares-Rius, Escobar, Cabrera, Vovlas and Castillo.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 150, Pages: 16, Words: 12792
                Funded by: Consejería de Economía, Innovación, Ciencia y Empleo, Junta de Andalucía 10.13039/501100002878
                Award ID: P12-AGR 1486
                Plant Science


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