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      Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads Translated title: Deux espèces de Philometra (Nematoda : Philometridae) parasites des gonades de mérous (Serranidae) de Tunisie, avec une clé des espèces de Philometra infectant les gonades des Serranidae

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          Abstract

          Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided.

          Translated abstract

          Sur la base d’études, au microscope photonique et électronique, de spécimens de nématodes (mâles et femelles mûres) recueillis dans les ovaires de mérous (Serranidae, Perciformes) de la mer Méditerranée au large de la Tunisie (près de Tunis et Sfax), deux espèces de Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) parasites de gonades sont signalées : Philometra inexpectata n. sp. du mérou royal Mycteroperca rubra et P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) du mérou noir Epinephelus marginatus. L’identification des deux espèces de poissons a été confirmée par les codes-barres moléculaires. La nouvelle espèce est caractérisée principalement par la longueur des spicules (147-165 μm), de tailles égales, le gubernaculum (63-93 μm de long) portant à sa pointe deux parties lamellaires dorsolatérales séparées l’une de l’autre par un champ médian lisse, une bosse en forme de V sur l’extrémité caudale du mâle, la présence d’une paire de grandes papilles caudales situées en arrière du cloaque et par la longueur du corps des mâles (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. est la cinquième espèce de Philometridae des gonades de poissons Serranidae dans la région méditerranéenne. Les mâles de P. jordanoi ont été examinés par microscopie électronique à balayage pour la première fois ; cette étude détaillée a révélé quelques nouvelles caractéristiques morphologiques taxinomiquement importantes, telles que le nombre et la disposition des papilles céphaliques et caudales, la présence d’amphides et de phasmides et principalement les structures lamellaires à l’extrémité postérieure du gubernaculum. Une clé des espèces de Philometra parasites des poissons Serranidae est fournie.

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          Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays

          Background International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S), cytochrome b (cyt b), and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of “DNA barcoding” and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the “position of label” effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90%) renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. Conclusions/Significance Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products.
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            Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic

            Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 μm) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid.
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              A Phylogenetic Re-Analysis of Groupers with Applications for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

              Background Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. Methods We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Results Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. Conclusions The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since meal remnants in CFP cases can be easily identified with molecular tools.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2016
                08 March 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences Branišovská 31 370 05 České Budějovice Czech Republic
                [2 ] Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Écosystèmes Aquatiques, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (FSS), Université de Sfax BP 1171 3038 Sfax Tunisia
                [3 ] ISYEB, Institut Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité, UMR7205 CNRS, EPHE, MNHN, UPMC, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Sorbonne Universités CP51, 55 Rue Buffon 75231 Paris cedex 05 France
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite160002 10.1051/parasite/2016008
                10.1051/parasite/2016008
                4783587
                26956219
                © F. Moravec et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Article

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