Herein, a polycarbonate (PC) polymer is melt extruded together with titanium carbide (TiC) nano powder for the development of advanced nanocomposite materials in material extrusion (MEX) 3D printing. Raw material for the 3D printing process was prepared in filament form with a thermomechanical extrusion process and specimens were built to be tested according to international standards. A thorough mechanical characterization testing course (tensile, flexural, impact, microhardness, and dynamic mechanical analysis-DMA) was conducted on the 3D printed specimens. The effect of the ceramic filler loading was also investigated. The nanocomposites’ thermal and stoichiometric properties were investigated with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman respectively. The specimens’ 3D printing morphology, quality, and fracture mechanism were investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The results depicted that the addition of the filler decidedly enhances the mechanical response of the virgin polymer, without compromising properties such as its processability or its thermal stability. The highest improvement of 41.9% was reported for the 2 wt.% filler loading, making the nanocomposite suitable for applications requiring a high mechanical response in 3D printing, in which the matrix material cannot meet the design requirements.