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      Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

      Psychological Bulletin

      Personality, Life Change Events, Humans, Follow-Up Studies

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          Abstract

          The present study used meta-analytic techniques (number of samples = 92) to determine the patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course. Results showed that people increase in measures of social dominance (a facet of extraversion), conscientiousness, and emotional stability, especially in young adulthood (age 20 to 40). In contrast, people increase on measures of social vitality (a 2nd facet of extraversion) and openness in adolescence but then decrease in both of these domains in old age. Agreeableness changed only in old age. Of the 6 trait categories, 4 demonstrated significant change in middle and old age. Gender and attrition had minimal effects on change, whereas longer studies and studies based on younger cohorts showed greater change.

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          Most cited references 101

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          Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.

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            Quantitative methods in psychology: a power primer

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              Emerging adulthood. A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties.

               J Arnett (2000)
              Emerging adulthood is proposed as a new conception of development for the period from the late teens through the twenties, with a focus on ages 18-25. A theoretical background is presented. Then evidence is provided to support the idea that emerging adulthood is a distinct period demographically, subjectively, and in terms of identity explorations. How emerging adulthood differs from adolescence and young adulthood is explained. Finally, a cultural context for the idea of emerging adulthood is outlined, and it is specified that emerging adulthood exists only in cultures that allow young people a prolonged period of independent role exploration during the late teens and twenties.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.1
                16435954

                Chemistry

                Personality, Life Change Events, Humans, Follow-Up Studies

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