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      Iron oxide nanoparticles as nanocarriers to improve chlorin e6-based sonosensitivity in sonodynamic therapy

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          Abstract

          Background

          Compared to the excitation light in photodynamic therapy, ultrasound in sonodynamic therapy (SDT) could easily penetrate into the deep tumor in liver. However, the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (E6) activated by ultrasound has been limited in its application in clinics for the poor water solubility of E6 and poor effect of SDT. Nanoparticles as cavitation promotors may be able to amplify the E6-mediated SDT effect and also improve its water solubility.

          Objective

          The objective of the study was to develop an E6-based sonosensitizer with improved SDT effect and good water solubility using nanotechnology.

          Materials and methods

          Polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated iron oxide nanoparticles coated with E6 (PION@E6) was prepared by means of pyrolysis and phase transfer. Characterization of PION@E6 was performed by means of transmission electron microscopy, hydrate particle size analysis, and absorption and fluorescence spectra analysis. Uptake of PION@E6 by H22 cells (a murine hepatoma cell line) was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The effect of SDT on H22 cells was studied by the combination of ultrasound treatment with PION@E6 incubation. Cell viability was measured using cell counting kit-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. ROS generation was measured using DCFH-DA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) probing kit.

          Results

          Absorption spectra of PION@E6 revealed successful loading of E6 onto the PIONs. It showed excellent water solubility and stability with a size of 37.86±12.90 nm in diameter. The fluorescence spectra of PION@E6 revealed a red-shift compared with free E6. When combined with ultrasound treatment, it showed a significantly better inhibitory effect on H22 cells and correspondingly higher level of intracellular ROS generation compared with free E6. Furthermore, either higher dose of PION@E6 or higher power intensity of ultrasound initiated significantly better SDT effect and correspondingly higher level of intracellular ROS generation compared with lower dose of PION@E6 or ultrasound, respectively.

          Conclusion

          PION@E6 is a superior potential sonosensitizer to E6 to treat tumors by SDT.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Designed synthesis of uniformly sized iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

          Various magnetic nanoparticles have been extensively investigated as novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents owing to their unique characteristics, including efficient contrast effects, biocompatibility, and versatile surface functionalization capability. Nanoparticles with high relaxivity are very desirable because they would increase the accuracy of MRI. Recent progress in nanotechnology enables fine control of the size, crystal structure, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this tutorial review, we discuss how MRI contrast effects can be improved by controlling the size, composition, doping, assembly, and surface properties of iron-oxide-based nanoparticles.
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            Multifunctional in vivo vascular imaging using near-infrared II fluorescence

            In vivo real-time epifluorescence imaging of mouse hindlimb vasculatures in the second near-infrared region (NIR-II, 1.1~1.4 microns) is performed using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as fluorophores. Both high spatial resolution (~30 microns) and temporal resolution (<200 ms/frame) for small vessel imaging are achieved 1-3 mm deep in the tissue owing to the beneficial NIR-II optical window that affords deep anatomical penetration and low scattering. This spatial resolution is unattainable by traditional NIR imaging (NIR-I, 0.75~0.9 microns) or microscopic computed tomography (micro-CT), while the temporal resolution far exceeds scanning microscopic imaging techniques. Arterial and venous vessels are unambiguously differentiated using a dynamic contrast-enhanced NIR-II imaging technique based on their distinct hemodynamics. Further, the deep tissue penetration, high spatial and temporal resolution of NIR-II imaging allow for precise quantifications of blood velocity in both normal and ischemic femoral arteries, which are beyond the capability of ultrasonography at lower blood velocity.
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              Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis: analysis of 48 cases.

              The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is extremely poor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) for patients with advanced HCCs. Forty-eight HCC patients with PVTT were treated by HAIC via a subcutaneously implanted injection port. Of these, 14 had PVTT in the second portal branch and 34 patients had PVTT in the first portal branch or in the main portal trunk. One course of chemotherapy consisted of daily cisplatin (7 mg/m(2) for 1 hour on Days 1-5) followed by 5-fluorouracil (170 mg/m(2) for 5 hours on Days 1-5). Patients were scheduled to receive four serial courses of HAIC. Responders were defined as having either a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) and nonresponders were defined as exhibiting stable disease or progressive disease. The prognosis after HAIC and factors related to survival were analyzed. Following HAIC, 4 and 19 patients exhibited a CR and PR, respectively (response rate = 48%). The 1, 2, 3, and 5-year cumulative survival rates of 48 patients treated with HAIC were 45%, 31%, 25%, and 11%, respectively. Median survival periods for 23 responders and 25 nonresponders were 31.6 (range, 8.3-76.9) months and 5.4 (1.9-29.0) months, respectively. Therapeutic effect (P < 0.001) and hepatic reserve capacity (P = 0.021) were identified as significant prognostic factors by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis identified only therapeutic effect as being significantly related to survival. HAIC using low-dose cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil may be a useful therapeutic option for patients with advanced HCC with PVTT. HCC patients with PVTT who respond to HAIC could certainly have survival benefits. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                10 December 2018
                : 12
                : 4207-4216
                Affiliations
                Research Center for Nervous System Diseases, The Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China, wenjian2400@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jian Wen, Research Center for Nervous System Diseases, The Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin Medical University, No.15, Lequn Road, Guilin, Guangxi 541040, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 189 9404 3727, Email wenjian2400@ 123456163.com
                Article
                dddt-12-4207
                10.2147/DDDT.S184679
                6292398
                © 2018 Zhang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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