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      Differences in Pain Intensity of Tumors Spread to the Anterior versus Anterolateral/Lateral Portions of the Vertebral Body Based on CT Scans

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          Abstract

          We investigated whether the intensity of cancer pain differs for malignant tumors that have spread to anterior or anterolateral/lateral portions of the vertebral body. We hypothesize that tumor spread to the anterolateral/lateral vertebral body elicits more serious pain due to increased irritation of the spinal nerve. The selection criteria were as follows: (1) advanced or metastatic solid tumor; (2) radicular pain without extremity weakness; (3) malignant lesions anteriorly, anterolaterally, or laterally located at the vertebral body either spread locoregionally or over a greater distance via metastasis based on CT scan diagnosis; and (4) patient needs to use opioids for pain relief. Severe spinal pain intensity was defined as spinal pain for which patients required either strong opioids or spinal irradiation for relief. Eighty-six patients were enrolled in the study. Bone lesions were mainly osteolytic. Thirty-nine tumors spread to the vertebral body in the anterior direction, and 47 in the anterolateral/lateral direction. Severe pain intensity related to vertebral body lesions was due to anterolateral/lateral spread, primary sites of nonurothelial carcinoma, metastatic vertebral lesions, multiple lesions within a vertebrum, and location within the cervical-thoracic spine. In conclusion, patients with tumor spread to the anterolateral/lateral portion of vertebrae bodies based on CT scan diagnosis experienced severe cancer pain. These patients needed strong opioids or palliative spinal irradiation for pain relief.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Cancer and systemic inflammation: treat the tumour and treat the host

          Determinants of cancer progression and survival are multifactorial and host responses are increasingly appreciated to have a major role. Indeed, the development and maintenance of a systemic inflammatory response has been consistently observed to confer poorer outcome, in both early and advanced stage disease. For patients, cancer-associated symptoms are of particular importance resulting in a marked impact on day-to-day quality of life and are also associated with poorer outcome. These symptoms are now recognised to cluster with one another with anorexia, weight loss and physical function forming a recognised cluster whereas fatigue, pain and depression forming another. Importantly, it has become apparent that these symptom clusters are associated with presence of a systemic inflammatory response in the patient with cancer. Given the understanding of the above, there is now a need to intervene to moderate systemic inflammatory responses, where present. In this context the rationale for therapeutic intervention using nonselective anti-inflammatory agents is clear and compelling and likely to become a part of routine clinical practice in the near future. The published literature on therapeutic intervention using anti-inflammatory agents for cancer-associated symptoms was reviewed. There are important parallels with the development of useful treatments for the systemic inflammatory response in patients with rheumatological disease and cardiovascular disease.
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            The systemic inflammatory response and its relationship to pain and other symptoms in advanced cancer.

            Inflammation has been identified as a hallmark of cancer and may be necessary for tumorgenesis and maintenance of the cancer state. Inflammation-related symptoms are common in those with cancer; however, little is known about the relationship between symptoms and systemic inflammation in cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between symptoms and systemic inflammation in a large cohort of patients with advanced cancer.
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              Effectiveness of the World Health Organization cancer pain relief guidelines: an integrative review

               Cathy Carlson (2016)
              Inadequate cancer pain relief has been documented extensively across historical records. In response, in 1986, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed guidelines for cancer pain treatment. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the results of a comprehensive, integrative review of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO guidelines. Studies were included if they: 1) identified patients treated with the guidelines, 2) evaluated self-reported pain, 3) identified instruments used, 4) provided data documenting pain relief, and 5) were written in English. Studies were coded for duration of treatment, definition of pain relief, instruments used, findings related to pain intensity or relief, and whether measures were used other than the WHO analgesic ladder. Twenty-five studies published since 1987 met the inclusion criteria. Evidence indicates 20%–100% of patients with cancer pain can be provided pain relief with the use of the WHO guidelines – while considering their status of treatment or end-of-life care. Due to multiple limitations in included studies, analysis was limited to descriptions. Future research to examine the effectiveness of the WHO guidelines needs to consider recommendations to facilitate study comparisons by standardizing outcome measures. Recent studies have reported that patients with cancer experience pain at moderate or greater levels. The WHO guidelines reflect the knowledge and effectual methods to relieve most cancer pain, but the guidelines are not being adequately employed. Part of the explanation for the lack of adoption of the WHO guidelines is that they may be considered outdated by many because they are not specific to the pharmacological and interventional options used in contemporary pain management practices. The conundrum of updating the WHO guidelines is to encompass the latest pharmacological and interventional innovations while maintaining its original simplicity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Pain Res Manag
                Pain Res Manag
                PRM
                Pain Research & Management
                Hindawi
                1203-6765
                1918-1523
                2019
                13 May 2019
                : 2019
                Affiliations
                1Chinese Acupuncture and Traumatology, Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang-Gung University College, Taoyuan, Taiwan
                2Division of Hemato-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang-Gung University College, Taoyuan, Taiwan
                3Department of Neurology, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang-Gung University College, Taoyuan, Taiwan
                4Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang-Gung University College, Taoyuan, Taiwan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Massimiliano Valeriani

                Article
                10.1155/2019/9387941
                6535837
                Copyright © 2019 Hui-Ching Hsu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research Article

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