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      Computed tomography angiography, perfusion computed tomography, and a drug-eluting stent for the treatment of in-stent restenosis of the middle cerebral artery.

      Journal of neurosurgery

      Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Aged, Retreatment, Recurrence, therapy, radiography, Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery, Humans, Female, Drug-Eluting Stents, Cerebral Angiography, Angioplasty

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          The authors report a case of in-stent restenosis (ISR) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) following bare-metal stent (BMS) deployment and subsequent treatment using a drug-eluting stent (DES). This 65-year-old woman presented with frequent transient ischemic attacks. Initial studies revealed occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and severe stenosis of the right MCA with decreased cerebral perfusion in the bilateral MCA territories. Stent-assisted angioplasty of the right MCA was performed using a BMS, and satisfactory results were obtained with no complications. Six months after the procedure the patient presented with recurrent symptoms, and workups revealed ISR with decreased cerebral perfusion. A DES was successfully placed without complications. Follow-up studies at 3 and 8 months after retreatment showed sustained luminal integrity and cerebral perfusion. A combination of CT angiography and perfusion CT exhibited the anatomical results and hemodynamic status of the stenotic lesion, and these findings coincided with the patient's clinical symptoms and the results of conventional cerebral angiography. In-stent restenosis of the MCA after placement of a BMS can be treated using a DES. A combination of CT angiography and perfusion CT can be an alternative to conventional angiography. Low-profile devices with an amelioration of trackability are essential for the further incorporation of the DES into the field of endovascular neurosurgery. More clinical experiences and long-term follow-ups are mandatory to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and durability of the DES.

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