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      Retinal Microvasculature Changes After Repair of Macula-off Retinal Detachment Assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography


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          To characterize the microvascular retinal changes after repair of macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A).

          Patients and Methods

          A retrospective review of patients who underwent repair of macula-off RRD. Fellow unaffected eyes were used as controls. Post-operative OCT-A allowed comparison of vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP) as well as VD in the choriocapillaris layer.


          Seventeen eyes of 17 RRD patients were included in the final analysis. There was a reduction in VD of the deep retinal capillary plexus in affected eyes compared to fellow eyes (p = 0.046). RRD eyes with reduced VD in DCP compared with their fellow control eyes had worse visual acuity after repair compared to those without (p = 0.032). No significant microvasculature changes were detected in the FAZ area and VD in the superficial capillary plexus and choriocapillaris compared to fellow eyes.


          In macula-off RRD eyes, significant microvascular changes were detected in the DCP using OCT-A even after successful anatomical repair. Decreased VD in the DCP compared to the fellow healthy eyes was correlated with worse visual acuity.

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          Most cited references61

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          A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA)

          Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging technique that generates volumetric angiography images in a matter of seconds. This is a nascent technology with a potential wide applicability for retinal vascular disease. At present, level 1 evidence of the technology’s clinical applications doesn’t exist. In this paper, we introduce the technology, review the available English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the current angiographic gold standards, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Finally we summarize its potential application to retinal vascular diseases. OCTA is quick and non-invasive, and provides volumetric data with the clinical capability of specifically localizing and delineating pathology along with the ability to show both structural and blood flow information in tandem. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and proclivity for image artifact due to patient movement/blinking. Published studies hint at OCTA’s potential efficacy in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such age related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, artery and vein occlusions, and glaucoma. OCTA can detect changes in choroidal blood vessel flow and can elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a variety of conditions but especially in AMD. It provides a highly detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows for accurate delineation of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in diabetic eyes and detection of subtle microvascular abnormalities in diabetic and vascular occlusive eyes. Optic disc perfusion in glaucomatous eyes is notable as well on OCTA. Further studies are needed to more definitively determine OCTA’s utility in the clinical setting and to establish if this technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature in detail.
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            Receptor interacting protein kinases mediate retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor necrosis and compensate for inhibition of apoptosis.

            Apoptosis has been shown to be a significant form of cell loss in many diseases. Detachment of photoreceptors from the retinal pigment epithelium, as seen in various retinal disorders, causes photoreceptor loss and subsequent vision decline. Although caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways are activated after retinal detachment, caspase inhibition by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD fails to prevent photoreceptor death; thus, we investigated other pathways leading to cell loss. Here, we show that receptor interacting protein (RIP) kinase-mediated necrosis is a significant mode of photoreceptor cell loss in an experimental model of retinal detachment and when caspases are inhibited, RIP-mediated necrosis becomes the predominant form of death. RIP3 expression, a key activator of RIP1 kinase, increased more than 10-fold after retinal detachment. Morphological assessment of detached retinas treated with Z-VAD showed decreased apoptosis but significantly increased necrotic photoreceptor death. RIP1 kinase inhibitor necrostatin-1 or Rip3 deficiency substantially prevented those necrotic changes and reduced oxidative stress and mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor. Thus, RIP kinase-mediated programmed necrosis is a redundant mechanism of photoreceptor death in addition to apoptosis, and simultaneous inhibition of RIP kinases and caspases is essential for effective neuroprotection and may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of retinal disorders.
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              Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mediates retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis.

              Photoreceptor apoptosis is a major cause of visual loss in retinal detachment (RD) and several other visual disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Recently, increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) was reported in vitreous humor samples of patients with RD and diabetic retinopathy as well as in the brain tissues of patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Here we report that MCP-1 plays a critical role in mediating photoreceptor apoptosis in an experimental model of RD. RD led to increased MCP-1 expression in the Müller glia and increased CD11b+ macrophage/microglia in the detached retina. An MCP-1 blocking antibody greatly reduced macrophage/microglia infiltration and RD-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. Confirming these results, MCP-1 gene-deficient mice showed significantly reduced macrophage/microglia infiltration after RD and very little photoreceptor apoptosis. In primary retinal mixed cultures, MCP-1 was cytotoxic for recoverin+ photoreceptors, and this toxicity was eliminated through immunodepleting macrophage/microglia from the culture. In vivo, deletion of the gene encoding CD11b/CD18 nearly eliminated macrophage/microglia infiltration to the retina after RD and the loss of photoreceptors. Thus, MCP-1 expression and subsequent macrophage/microglia infiltration and activation are critical for RD-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. This pathway may be an important therapeutic target for preventing photoreceptor apoptosis in RD and other CNS diseases that share a common etiology.

                Author and article information

                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
                26 June 2020
                : 14
                : 1759-1767
                [1 ]Retina Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School , Boston, MA, USA
                [2 ]Retina Service, Weill Cornell Medical College , New York, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: John B Miller Retina Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School , 243 Charles St, Boston, MA02114Tel +1 (617) 573-3750Fax +1 (617) 573-3698 Email john_miller@meei.harvard.edu

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Author information
                © 2020 McKay et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 07 May 2019
                : 12 May 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 65, Pages: 9
                Funded by: not supported by any grant
                This study was not supported by any grant or research funding.
                Original Research

                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                microvascular changes,oct-angiography,macula-off retinal detachment


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