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      Prognostic impact of pretreatment skeletal muscle index and CONUT score in diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma


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          Although the prognostic value of the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been reported in several previous studies, its clinical relevance for the presence of sarcopenia has not been assessed.


          In this study, 305 DLBCL patients were reviewed. They were categorized into normal/mild ( n = 219) and moderate/severe ( n = 86) CONUT groups. Sarcopenia was assessed using the L3-skeletal muscle index measured by baseline computed tomography imaging. Based on CONUT score and sarcopenia, patients were grouped: A (normal/mild CONUT and no sarcopenia), B (either moderate/severe CONUT or sarcopenia, but not both), and C (both moderate/severe CONUT and sarcopenia).


          The moderate/severe CONUT group showed higher rates of ≥ grade 3 febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, non-hematologic toxicities, and early treatment discontinuation not related to disease progression, compared to the normal/mild CONUT group. The moderate/severe CONUT group had a lower complete response rate (58.1% vs. 80.8%) and shorter median overall survival (18.5 vs. 162.6 months) than the normal/mild group. Group C had the poorest prognosis with a median survival of 8.6 months, while groups A and B showed better outcomes (not reached and 60.1 months, respectively). Combining CONUT score and sarcopenia improved the predictive accuracy of the Cox regression model (C-index: 0.763), compared to the performance of using either CONUT score (C-index: 0.754) or sarcopenia alone (C-index: 0.755).


          In conclusion, the moderate/severe CONUT group exhibited treatment intolerance, lower response, and poor prognosis. Additionally, combining CONUT score and sarcopenia enhanced predictive accuracy for survival outcomes compared to individual variables.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12885-023-11590-y.

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          Most cited references39

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          Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification.

          The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials.
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            Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus.

            To develop a framework for the definition and classification of cancer cachexia a panel of experts participated in a formal consensus process, including focus groups and two Delphi rounds. Cancer cachexia was defined as a multifactorial syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass) that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Its pathophysiology is characterised by a negative protein and energy balance driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and abnormal metabolism. The agreed diagnostic criterion for cachexia was weight loss greater than 5%, or weight loss greater than 2% in individuals already showing depletion according to current bodyweight and height (body-mass index [BMI] <20 kg/m(2)) or skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). An agreement was made that the cachexia syndrome can develop progressively through various stages--precachexia to cachexia to refractory cachexia. Severity can be classified according to degree of depletion of energy stores and body protein (BMI) in combination with degree of ongoing weight loss. Assessment for classification and clinical management should include the following domains: anorexia or reduced food intake, catabolic drive, muscle mass and strength, functional and psychosocial impairment. Consensus exists on a framework for the definition and classification of cancer cachexia. After validation, this should aid clinical trial design, development of practice guidelines, and, eventually, routine clinical management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalised skeletal muscle disorder involving the accelerated loss of muscle mass and function that is associated with increased adverse outcomes including falls, functional decline, frailty, and mortality. It occurs commonly as an age-related process in older people, influenced not only by contemporaneous risk factors, but also by genetic and lifestyle factors operating across the life course. It can also occur in mid-life in association with a range of conditions. Sarcopenia has become the focus of intense research aiming to translate current knowledge about its pathophysiology into improved diagnosis and treatment, with particular interest in the development of biomarkers, nutritional interventions, and drugs to augment the beneficial effects of resistance exercise. Designing effective preventive strategies that people can apply during their lifetime is of primary concern. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sarcopenia is likely to become part of routine clinical practice.

                Author and article information

                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BioMed Central (London )
                6 November 2023
                6 November 2023
                : 23
                : 1071
                [1 ]Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, ( https://ror.org/00saywf64) Changwon, Korea
                [2 ]GRID grid.411899.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0624 2502, Department of Nuclear Medicine, , Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, ; Jinju, Korea
                [3 ]GRID grid.411899.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0624 2502, Department of Radiology, Institute of Health Science, , Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, ; Jinju, Korea
                [4 ]GRID grid.411899.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0624 2502, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Health Science, , Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, ; Gangnam-ro 79 Jinju, Jinju, 52727 Korea
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 18 August 2023
                : 30 October 2023
                Funded by: Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea
                Award ID: RS-2023-00219399
                Custom metadata
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                lymphoma,diffuse large b-cell,cachexia,malnutrition,sarcopenia,controlling nutritional status


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