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      Gender difference in health related quality of life and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS attending anti-retroviral therapy at public health facilities, western Ethiopia: comparative cross sectional study

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          Though HIV/AIDS has multidimensional consequences on quality of life, there is a gap in measuring and monitoring health related quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. Hence, this study intended to measure health related quality of life domains and associated determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS in western Ethiopia.


          A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 520 HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral therapy in public health facilities in West Shoa Zone, Western Ethiopia from April to May, 2016. Participants were selected using simple random sampling method. Quality of life was measured using WHOQOL-HIV BREF and depression was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. An independent sample t-test was used to compare quality of life domains between men and women and logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors.


          Females had significantly lower quality of life in physical, psychological, independence and environmental domains as compared with males except social relationship and spiritual domains. Depressed HIV patients had significantly lower quality of life in all domains as compared with HIV infected patients without depression in both genders. Malnutrition and anemia were significantly associated with poor physical, psychological, independence and environmental domains. Anemic women had 1.9 times lower independence quality of life compared with women who had no anemia (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI: 1.4, 3.5). Tuberculosis was also predictor of physical, psychological, independence and social domains in both genders. TB/HIV co-infected females had 2.0 times poorer environmental health compared to only HIV infected females (AOR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.2, 3.5). Family support, education and occupation were also independent significant predictors of QOL domains in both genders. In females, residence was significantly associated with independence (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.2–3.8) and environmental (AOR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1–3.2) domains.


          Females had significantly lower quality of life compared with males. The findings indicted poor socio-economic status and co-infections significantly associated with poor quality of life among HIV/AIDS patients. So, due emphasis should be given to improve socio-economic status and enhance integrated early detection and management of malnutrition, depression, tuberculosis and anemia among HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Is grip strength associated with health-related quality of life? Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

          to investigate the relationship between grip strength and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). cross-sectional survey within a cohort study design. the county of Hertfordshire in the UK. a total of 2,987 community-dwelling men and women aged 59-73 years of age. grip strength was used as a marker of sarcopaenia and measured using a Jamar dynamometer. HRQoL was assessed using the eight domain scores of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, and subjects in the lowest sex-specific fifth of the distribution were classified as having 'poor' status for each domain. men and women with lower grip strength were significantly more likely to report a poor as opposed to excellent to fair overall opinion of their general health (GH) [odds ratio (OR) per kilogram decrease in grip strength = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.06-1.19, P < 0.001 in men, 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.20, P < 0.001 in women]. Among men, after adjustment for age, size, physical activity and known co-morbidity, decreased grip strength was associated with increased prevalence of poor SF-36 scores for the physical functioning (PF) (OR per kilogram decrease in grip strength = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.06, P = 0.007) and GH domains (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05, P = 0.01). Similar associations were seen in women. our findings suggest that lower grip strength is associated with reduced HRQoL in older men and women. This does not appear to be explained by age, size, physical activity or co-morbidity and may reflect the link between sarcopaenia and generalised frailty. Individuals with sarcopaenia may benefit from interventions to improve muscle mass and strength before the onset of chronic disorders usually associated with impaired HRQoL.
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            Gender differences in health-related quality of life in patients with HIV/AIDS.

            In studies evaluating the general US population, patients in primary care, and patients with chronic conditions, women consistently report poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than men; however, studies evaluating HRQoL in patients with HIV/AIDS have not completely corroborated those findings. The objective of this study was to evaluate gender differences in HRQoL for participants in a large randomized trial comparing antiretroviral regimens. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 320 was a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing the 3-drug regimen of indinavir + zidovudine (or stavudine) + lamivudine with the 2-drug combination of zidovudine (or stavudine) + lamivudine in subjects with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/microl and no prior treatment with protease inhibitors. Nine quality of life domains scored on 0-100 scales were assessed using the ACTG QOL 601-602 Health Survey at 3 points in the trial: baseline, 24 weeks and 40 weeks. Differences between men and women in HRQoL scores were assessed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Overall, 202 females and 976 males were randomized to one of two treatment arms. Female participants were more likely to be black or Hispanic and tended to be younger. At baseline, females reported lower HRQoL scores than males in all of the domains except social functioning, and at week 40, women scored lower in all of the domains except overall health. In repeated measures models, women were found to score lower in all HRQoL domains except overall health, with significant differences of 3.5-6.7 points in 3 of the 9 quality of life domains: physical functioning, pain, and energy/fatigue. HRQoL scores improved for participants in the study over time and in response to potent treatment, and the improvements were similar for men and women. Women with HIV/AIDS report substantially poorer HRQoL than men with HIV/AIDS in several HRQoL domains. However, changes in domain scores over time and in response to treatment do not differ significantly by gender, implying that changes in domain scores may be better HRQoL outcomes to compare between HIV-infected men and women in clinical trials than mean domain scores.
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              Quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: impact of social support, coping style and hopelessness.

              We aimed to determine whether the quality of life (QOL) in the patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was influenced by satisfaction with social support, coping style and hopelessness. One hundred and thirty-eight HIV-infected patients were prospectively studied in this multicentre, longitudinal study. The QOL was assessed by Medical Outcome Study Health Survey SF-36, social support by Sarason Social Support Questionnaire, hopelessness by Beck Hopelessness Scale, and coping by Billing and Moos Inventory of coping with illness. The QOL did not correlate with age, sex, race, HIV risk factor, education or marital status. Employment (P = 0.0001), higher income (P = 0.03), satisfaction with social support (P = 0.04), regardless of the source of that support, and problem-focused coping (P = 0.03) were associated with a significantly better QOL, while, emotion-focused coping (r = -0.19, P = 0.04), avoidant coping (r = 0.40, P = 0.0001), hopelessness (r = -0.64, P = 0.0001) and AIDS (P = 0.09) were predictors of poorer QOL. Physical functioning correlated positively with employment (P = 0.0001), and inversely with AIDS (P = 0.0002), hopelessness (P = 0.03), avoidant coping (P = 0.03), and age (P = 0.10). At 6 months follow up, QOL score had changed in 20% of the patients; older age (P = 0.01), and lesser satisfaction with social support (P = 0.15) were associated with a decline in QOL, while adherence with antiretroviral therapy (P = 0.006) was associated with an increase in QOL score. Seven of 138 patients died during follow up; these patients had significantly lower QOL at baseline than all other patients (P = 0.003). Interventions to alleviate hopelessness, maladaptive coping, and enhancement of satisfaction with social support may improve overall QOL in HIV-infected patients. Older patients with HIV were less satisfied with their social support, were more likely to utilize unhealthy coping styles, and experienced a greater decline in QOL over time.

                Author and article information

                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                23 April 2018
                23 April 2018
                : 18
                College of medicine and health sciences, Department of Public Health, Ambo University, P.O. Box 19, Ambo, Ethiopia
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2018

                Public health

                antiretroviral therapy, health related quality of life, hiv/aids


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