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      Retrospective Study of Children with Acute Pyelonephritis

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          Abstract

          The purpose of the study was to investigate the management of pyelonephritis in a large Italian pediatric population. A total of 1,333 patients (36% male) were considered. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated agent (89.9%), followed by Proteus mirabilis (3.6%) and Klebsiella oxytoca (2.1%). 27% of microorganisms were resistant to amoxicillin, 4% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 11% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 2.4% to gentamicin and less than 2% to ceftazidime. Despite this resistance pattern showing that oral antibiotics, such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, are effective in vitro as well as parenteral antimicrobials, a parenteral antibiotic was given initially to 756 (57.2%) children. A prophylactic regimen was started in 922 patients with a rate of reinfection during prophylaxis of 9.5%; a higher rate of reinfection was observed in patients with reflux (25%) compared to children without reflux (3%) (p < 0.0001). Vesicoureteral reflux was demonstrated in 30% of patients. The number of renal abnormalities detected by DMSA in patients with and without reflux was significantly different (p < 0.001). CRP was higher in patients with scars (p < 0.02). In conclusion, pyelonephritis represents a common disease with about 2,500 days of hospitalization per year in the Veneto Region where there is a pediatric population of about 800,000 under 15 years of age. The results of antimicrobial in vitro tests indicate that amoxillicin/clavulanic acid could represent the antibiotic of choice. The high frequency of malformations, observed even in children between 6 and 12 years of age, may suggest the need of an imaging study including DMSA scan and VCUG in all age groups.

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          Are younger children at highest risk of renal sequelae after pyelonephritis?

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            2002
            2002
            13 December 2001
            : 90
            : 1
            : 8-15
            Affiliations
            aDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Padua, bDivision of Pediatrics, Ospedale Civile Thiene, Italy
            Article
            46308 Nephron 2002;90:8–15
            10.1159/000046308
            11744799
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 33, Pages: 8
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46308
            Categories
            Pediatric Nephrology. Section Editor: N.G. De Santo, Naples

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