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      Imaging Renin Content and Release in the Living Kidney

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          Abstract

          Renin release is the first, and at least initially, the rate-limiting step in the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which helps to maintain body salt and water balance. Recent advances in our understanding of pathophysiology have generated a renewed interest in the multiple roles of renin and prorenin as a hormone, enzyme, and signaling molecule. The assays available to measure renin content, release and tissue activity are complex, indirect and work with significant internal errors. We developed an imaging approach to directly visualize renin content and study the dynamics of both the release and tissue activity of renin. Our experimental model uses multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, which is ideal for deep optical sectioning of the living renal tissue. Here we review the application of this renin imaging approach to the dissected, in vitro microperfused glomerulus as well as in the intact kidney in vivo.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Microarray-based comparison of three amplification methods for nanogram amounts of total RNA.

          Gene expression profiling using microarrays requires microgram amounts of RNA, which limits its direct application for the study of nanogram RNA samples obtained using microdissection, laser capture microscopy, or needle biopsy. A novel system based on Ribo-SPIA technology (RS, Ovation-Biotin amplification and labeling system) was recently introduced. The utility of the RS system, an optimized prototype system for picogram RNA samples (pRS), and two T7-based systems involving one or two rounds of amplification (One RA, Standard Protocol, or Two RA, Small Sample Prototcol, version II) were evaluated in the present study. Mouse kidney (MK) and mouse universal reference (MUR) RNA samples, 0.3 ng to 10 mug, were analyzed using high-density Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 GeneChip arrays. Call concordance between replicates, correlations of signal intensity, signal intensity ratios, and minimal fold increase necessary for significance were determined. All systems amplified partially overlapping sets of genes with similar signal intensity correlations. pRS amplified the highest number of genes from 10-ng RNA samples. We detected 24 of 26 genes verified by RT-PCR in samples prepared using pRS. Two RA yielded somewhat higher call concordances than did RS and pRS (91.8% vs. 89.3% and 88.1%, respectively). Although all target preparation methods were suitable, pRS amplified the highest number of targets and was found to be suitable for amplification of as little as 0.3 ng of total RNA. In addition, RS and pRS were faster and simpler to use than the T7-based methods and resulted in the generation of cDNA, which is more stable than cRNA.
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            Cellular mechanism of renin release.

             F Schweda,  A. Kurtz (2004)
            In this review we aim to give a comprehensive overview over the current knowledge of the cellular control of renin release. We hereby focus on the inhibitory effects of calcium on the exocytosis of renin. After a short introduction into general aspects of the regulation of renin release, including a brief summary on the role of the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, we will discuss parts of the literature on the effects of calcium on the renin system together with recent studies from our laboratory, investigating putative calcium influx and extrusion pathways of juxtaglomerular cells. Finally, as the precise mechanisms by which calcium inhibits the exocytosis of renin are far from being understood, we will present some hypotheses on the intracellular events being involved in the suppression of renin release by calcium.
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              Multiphoton imaging of renal tissues in vitro.

              The highly inhomogeneous and light-scattering structure of living renal tissue makes the application of conventional imaging techniques more difficult compared with other parenchymal organs. On the other hand, key physiological processes of the kidney, such as regulation of glomerular filtration, hemodynamics, concentration, and dilution, involve complex interactions between multiple cell types and otherwise inaccessible structures that necessitate visual approaches. An ideal solution is multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy, a state-of-the-art imaging technique superior for deep optical sectioning of living tissue samples. Here, we review the basics and advantages of multiphoton microscopy and provide examples for its application in renal physiology using dissected cortical and medullary tissues in vitro. In combination with microperfusion techniques, the major functions of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, tubuloglomerular feedback and renin release, can be studied with high spatial and temporal resolution. Salt-dependent changes in macula densa cell volume, vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole, and activity of an intraglomerular precapillary sphincter composed of renin granular cells are visualized in real time. Release and tissue activity of renin can be studied on the individual granule level. Imaging of the living inner medulla shows how interstitial cells interconnect cells of the vasa recta, loop of Henle, and collecting duct. In summary, multiphoton microscopy is an exciting new optical sectioning technique that has great potential for numerous future developments and is ideal for applications that require deep optical sectioning of living tissue samples.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8074-8
                978-3-318-01315-3
                1660-2137
                2006
                March 2006
                11 April 2006
                : 103
                : 2
                : p71-p74
                Affiliations
                Departments of Physiology and Biophysics and Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
                Article
                90622 Nephron Physiol 2006;103:p71–p74
                10.1159/000090622
                16543770
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 19, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/90622
                Categories
                Microscopic Imaging

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