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      The Relation between Homocysteine and Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis

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          Abstract

          Background: In patients diagnosed with calcific aortic valve stenosis, cardiac risk factors are similar to those of coronary artery disease; homocysteine concentration is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between plasma homocysteine levels and aortic valve stenosis and the influence of homocysteine levels on the coexistence of coronary artery disease in patients with moderate to severe aortic valve stenosis. Methods: Fifty-eight patients who had been diagnosed with moderate to severe aortic stenosis formed the test group of this study, and 47 healthy subjects without coronary artery disease or aortic valve stenosis formed the control group. The patients with aortic stenosis were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease in their coronary angiograms. After 12 h fasting venous blood samples were collected and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and homocysteine levels were measured and compared between the two groups. Measurements and Results: The mean blood homocysteine level was 10.8 ± 3.3 µmol/l in patients with aortic valve stenosis and 8.1 ± 4.7 µmol/l in the control group; the difference between these levels was statistically insignificant. The patients with aortic valve stenosis had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol and hypertension and were more likely to have a positive family history for coronary artery disease. When the two subgroups of patients with aortic valve stenosis were compared, mean blood homocysteine levels were 13.2 ± 3.1 and 8.3 ± 2.2 µmol/l, respectively, showing significantly higher levels in the group with coronary artery disease. In this comparison patients with coronary artery disease were also found to have significantly higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL and they were more likely to be smokers. Conclusions: Although there was no relation between blood homocysteine levels and the existence of aortic valve stenosis, in cases with both coronary heart disease and aortic stenosis homocysteine levels were significantly higher than in the patients with pure aortic valve stenosis.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease.

          Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are a risk factor for coronary heart disease, but the prognostic value of homocysteine levels in patients with established coronary artery disease has not been defined. We prospectively investigated the relation between plasma total homocysteine levels and mortality among 587 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease. At the time of angiography in 1991 or 1992, risk factors for coronary disease, including homocysteine levels, were evaluated. The majority of the patients subsequently underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (318 patients) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (120 patients); the remaining 149 were treated medically. After a median follow-up of 4.6 years, 64 patients (10.9 percent) had died. We found a strong, graded relation between plasma homocysteine levels and overall mortality. After four years, 3.8 percent of patients with homocysteine levels below 9 micromol per liter had died, as compared with 24.7 percent of those with homocysteine levels of 15 micromol per liter or higher. Homocysteine levels were only weakly related to the extent of coronary artery disease but were strongly related to the history with respect to myocardial infarction, the left ventricular ejection fraction, and the serum creatinine level. The relation of homocysteine levels to mortality remained strong after adjustment for these and other potential confounders. In an analysis in which the patients with homocysteine levels below 9 micromol per liter were used as the reference group, the mortality ratios were 1.9 for patients with homocysteine levels of 9.0 to 14.9 micromol per liter, 2.8 for those with levels of 15.0 to 19.9 micromol per liter, and 4.5 for those with levels of 20.0 micromol per liter or higher (P for trend=0.02). When death due to cardiovascular disease (which occurred in 50 patients) was used as the end point in the analysis, the relation between homocysteine levels and mortality was slightly strengthened. Plasma total homocysteine levels are a strong predictor of mortality in patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease.
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            A prospective study of plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians.

            To assess prospectively the risk of coronary heart disease associated with elevated plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine. Nested case-control study using prospectively collected blood samples. Participants in the Physicians' Health Study. A total of 14,916 male physicians, aged 40 to 84 years, with no prior myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke provided plasma samples at baseline and were followed up for 5 years. Samples from 271 men who subsequently developed MI were analyzed for homocyst(e)ine levels together with paired controls, matched by age and smoking. Acute MI or death due to coronary disease. Levels of homocyst(e)ine were higher in cases than in controls (11.1 +/- 4.0 [SD] vs 10.5 +/- 2.8 nmol/mL; P = .03). The difference was attributable to an excess of high values among men who later had MIs. The relative risk for the highest 5% vs the bottom 90% of homocyst(e)ine levels was 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 6.9; P = .005). After additional adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, aspirin assignment, Quetelet's Index, and total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, this relative risk was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 8.8) (P = .01). Thirteen controls and 31 cases (11%) had values above the 95th percentile of the controls. Moderately high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine are associated with subsequent risk of MI independent of other coronary risk factors. Because high levels can often be easily treated with vitamin supplements, homocyst(e)ine may be an independent, modifiable risk factor.
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              A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes

               C J Boushey (1995)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                June 2005
                10 June 2005
                : 103
                : 4
                : 207-211
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCardiology and bInternal Medicine, İzzet Baysal Faculty of Medicine, Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu, cDepartment of Cardiology, Düzce Faculty of Medicine, Abant İzzet Baysal University, Düzce, and dDepartment of Cardiology, Sisli Etfal State Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
                Article
                85199 Cardiology 2005;103:207–211
                10.1159/000085199
                15838165
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 22, Pages: 5
                Categories
                General Cardiology

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