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      Improving Growth in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

      , ,

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Stature, Cytokines, Growth hormone, Inflammation, Puberty

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          Abstract

          Background: Growth in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is affected through a number of mechanisms; controlling disease activity and supporting poor nutritional status are paramount in these patients. Further understanding of the basic mechanisms by which cytokines influence growth will facilitate the development of therapeutic modalities to improve growth. Conclusions: Clinical management that addresses growth and puberty in children with IBD should be a partnership between paediatric gastroenterologists and endocrinologists. Well-designed studies of growth-promoting hormonal treatment may answer questions regarding the efficacy and safety of treating growth retardation in the subgroup of patients who continue to fail to grow despite optimal management of their IBD.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Normal growth and development in the absence of hepatic insulin-like growth factor I.

          The somatomedin hypothesis proposed that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was a hepatically derived circulating mediator of growth hormone and is a crucial factor for postnatal growth and development. To reassess this hypothesis, we have used the Cre/loxP recombination system to delete the igf1 gene exclusively in the liver. igf1 gene deletion in the liver abrogated expression of igf1 mRNA and caused a dramatic reduction in circulating IGF-I levels. However, growth as determined by body weight, body length, and femoral length did not differ from wild-type littermates. Although our model proves that hepatic IGF-I is indeed the major contributor to circulating IGF-I levels in mice it challenges the concept that circulating IGF-I is crucial for normal postnatal growth. Rather, our model provides direct evidence for the importance of the autocrine/paracrine role of IGF-I.
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            Induction and maintenance infliximab therapy for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease in children.

            The REACH study evaluated the safety and efficacy of infliximab in children with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease. Patients (n = 112) with a Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) score >30 received infliximab 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2, and 6. Patients responding to treatment at week 10 were randomized to infliximab 5 mg/kg every 8 or 12 weeks through week 46. A concurrent immunomodulator was required. Clinical response (decrease from baseline in the PCDAI score > or =15 points; total score < or =30) and clinical remission (PCDAI score < or =10 points) were evaluated at weeks 10, 30, and 54. At week 10, 99 of 112 (88.4%) patients responded to infliximab (95% confidence interval: [82.5%, 94.3%]) and 66 of 112 (58.9%) patients achieved clinical remission (95% confidence interval: [49.8%, 68.0%]). At week 54, 33 of 52 (63.5%) and 29 of 52 (55.8%) patients receiving infliximab every 8 weeks did not require dose adjustment and were in clinical response and clinical remission, respectively, compared with 17 of 51 (33.3%) and 12 of 51 (23.5%) patients receiving treatment every 12 weeks (P = .002 and P < .001, respectively). Pediatric patients responding to an induction regimen of infliximab were more likely to be in clinical response and remission at week 54 without dose adjustment when their maintenance therapy was given every 8 weeks rather than every 12 weeks. Allowing for dose intensification in the case of relapse, remission rates, but not response rates, at week 54 were superior with every 8-week dosing compared with every 12-week dosing.
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              A multicenter trial of 6-mercaptopurine and prednisone in children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease.

               K Grancher,  F Daum,  M Lesser (2000)
              Clinical experience suggests that 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is effective therapy for children with active steroid-dependent Crohn's disease (CD). We report the results of a prospective, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial evaluating the combination of 6-MP and prednisone as therapy for children with newly diagnosed moderate-to-severe CD. Fifty-five children (age, 13+/-2 years) were randomized to treatment with 6-MP (1.5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or placebo within 8 weeks of initial diagnosis. Both groups also received prednisone (40 mg/day). Prednisone dosage adjustments were based on a defined schedule determined by the change in a subject's disease activity score, and steroid administration was discontinued as remission was achieved. Study treatment with 6-MP or placebo continued for 18 months. Groups were comparable for age, sex, and site and activity of disease. In the 6-MP group, the duration of steroid use was shorter (P<0.001) and the cumulative steroid dose lower at 6, 12, and 18 months (P<0.01). Although remission was induced in 89% of both groups, only 9% of the remitters in the 6-MP group relapsed compared with 47% of controls (P = 0.007). Growth was comparable in both groups. No clinically significant adverse events occurred, although mild leukopenia and increases in aminotransferase activity were noted in the 6-MP group. Addition of 6-MP to a regimen of corticosteroids significantly lessens the need for prednisone and improves maintenance of remission. 6-MP should be part of the initial treatment regimen for children with newly diagnosed moderate-to-severe CD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8475-3
                978-3-8055-8476-0
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                December 2007
                10 December 2007
                : 68
                : Suppl 5
                : 117-121
                Affiliations
                Bone & Endocrine Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
                Article
                110604 Horm Res 2007;68:117–121
                10.1159/000110604
                18174726
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 59, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Pediatric Clinical Case Sessions

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