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      Exploring prescriber perspectives toward nurses’ active involvement in antimicrobial stewardship: A qualitative study

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          Abstract

          Little is known about prescribers’ attitudes regarding clinical nurses and antimicrobial stewardship. We conducted focus groups of prescribers and inquired about attitudes regarding nurses and stewardship. During 6 focus groups, prescribers were receptive to nursing involvement in stewardship activities, but noted structural barriers and knowledge gaps that should be addressed.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Health care use and serious infection prevalence associated with penicillin "allergy" in hospitalized patients: A cohort study.

          Penicillin is the most common drug "allergy" noted at hospital admission, although it is often inaccurate. We sought to determine total hospital days, antibiotic exposures, and the prevalence rates of Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in patients with and without penicillin "allergy" at hospital admission. We performed a retrospective, matched cohort study of subjects admitted to Kaiser Foundation hospitals in Southern California during 2010 through 2012. It was possible to match 51,582 (99.6% of all possible cases) unique hospitalized subjects with penicillin "allergy" to 2 unique discharge diagnosis category-matched, sex-matched, age-matched, and date of admission-matched control subjects each. Cases with penicillin "allergy" averaged 0.59 (9.9%; 95% CI, 0.47-0.71) more total hospital days during 20.1 ± 10.5 months of follow-up compared with control subjects. Cases were treated with significantly more fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, and vancomycin (P < .0001) for each antibiotic compared with control subjects. Cases had 23.4% (95% CI, 15.6% to 31.7%) more C difficile, 14.1% (95% CI, 7.1% to 21.6%) more MRSA, and 30.1% (95% CI, 12.5% to 50.4%) more VRE infections than expected compared with control subjects. A penicillin "allergy" history, although often inaccurate, is not a benign finding at hospital admission. Subjects with a penicillin "allergy" history spend significantly more time in the hospital. Subjects with a penicillin "allergy" history are exposed to significantly more antibiotics previously associated with C difficile and VRE. Drug "allergies" in general, but most those notably to penicillin, are associated with increased hospital use and increased C difficile, MRSA, and VRE prevalence. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Antibiotic usage and risk of colonization and infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a hospital population-based study.

            Accurate assessment of risk factors for nosocomial acquisition of colonization by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) is often confounded by scarce data on antibiotic use. A 12-month, nested, multicenter cohort study was conducted. Target ARB were methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CR-PA). Nares and rectal swabs were obtained before and after starting antibiotics. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was done to define genetic relatedness of the strains. Primary outcomes were (i) the mean time, in days, for acquisition of target ARB colonization in patients previously not colonized; (ii) the rate of acquisition per 1,000 antibiotic-days according to different classes of antibiotics; (iii) the rate of infection caused by the same bacteria as those previously isolated in screening samples; and (iv) the risk factors for ARB acquisition. In total, 6,245 swabs from 864 inpatients were processed. The rate of acquisition was 3%, 2%, and 1% for MRSA, VRE, and CR-PA, respectively. The rate of acquisition of ARB per 1,000 antibiotic-days was 14 for carbapenems, 9 for glycopeptides, and 6 for broad-spectrum cephalosporins and quinolones. The highest rates of acquisition were observed for carbapenems in dialyzed and diabetic patients. Four risk factors were independently associated with acquisition of target ARB: use of carbapenems, age of >70 years, hospitalization for >16 days, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. During the 30-day follow-up, 4 among 42 patients newly colonized by ARB (9%) suffered from an infection due to the same bacteria as those isolated in a previous screening sample. Colonizing and infecting strains from single patients were genotypically identical. Identifying ARB colonization early during antibiotic therapy could target a high-risk hospitalized population that may benefit from intervention to decrease the risk of subsequent nosocomial infections.
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              The Critical Role of the Staff Nurse in Antimicrobial Stewardship—Unrecognized, but Already There: Table 1.

              An essential participant in antimicrobial stewardship who has been unrecognized and underutilized is the "staff nurse." Although the role of staff nurses has not formally been recognized in guidelines for implementing and operating antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) or defined in the medical literature, they have always performed numerous functions that are integral to successful antimicrobial stewardship. Nurses are antibiotic first responders, central communicators, coordinators of care, as well as 24-hour monitors of patient status, safety, and response to antibiotic therapy. An operational analysis of inpatient admissions evaluates these nursing stewardship activities and analyzes the potential benefits of nurses' formal education about, and inclusion into, ASPs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
                Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0899-823X
                1559-6834
                October 2019
                August 06 2019
                October 2019
                : 40
                : 10
                : 1184-1187
                Article
                10.1017/ice.2019.227
                © 2019

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