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      Poor Vitamin C Status Late in Pregnancy Is Associated with Increased Risk of Complications in Type 1 Diabetic Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

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          Abstract

          Vitamin C (vitC) is essential for normal pregnancy and fetal development and poor vitC status has been related to complications of pregnancy. We have previously shown lower vitC status in diabetic women throughout pregnancy compared to that of non-diabetic controls. Here, we evaluate the relationship between vitC status late in diabetic pregnancy in relation to fetal outcome, complications of pregnancy, diabetic characteristics, and glycemic control based on data of 47 women from the same cohort. We found a significant relationship between the maternal vitC level > or ≤ the 50% percentile of 26.6 μmol/L, respectively, and the umbilical cord blood vitC level (mean (SD)): 101.0 μmol/L (16.6) versus 78.5 μmol/L (27.8), p = 0.02; n = 12/16), while no relation to birth weight or Apgar score was observed. Diabetic women with complications of pregnancy had significantly lower vitC levels compared to the women without complications (mean (SD): 24.2 μmol/L (10.6) vs. 34.6 μmol/L (14.4), p = 0.01; n = 19 and 28, respectively) and the subgroup of women (about 28%) characterized by hypovitaminosis C (<23 μmol/L) had an increased relative risk of complications of pregnancy that was 2.4 fold higher than the one found in the group of women with a vitC status above this level ( p = 0.02, 95% confidence interval 1.2–4.4). No correlation between diabetic characteristics of the pregnant women and vitC status was observed, while a negative association of maternal vitC with HbA1c at delivery was found at regression analysis ( r = −0.39, p < 0.01, n = 46). In conclusion, our results may suggest that hypovitaminosis C in diabetic women is associated with increased risk of complications of pregnancy.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Placental-related diseases of pregnancy: Involvement of oxidative stress and implications in human evolution.

          Miscarriage and pre-eclampsia are the most common disorders of human pregnancy. Both are placental-related and exceptional in other mammalian species. Ultrasound imaging has enabled events during early pregnancy to be visualized in vivo for the first time. As a result, a new understanding of the early materno-fetal relationship has emerged and, with it, new insight into the pathogenesis of these disorders. Unifying the two is the concept of placental oxidative stress, with associated necrosis and apoptosis of the trophoblastic epithelium of the placental villous tree. In normal pregnancies, the earliest stages of development take place in a low oxygen (O2) environment. This physiological hypoxia of the early gestational sac protects the developing fetus against the deleterious and teratogenic effects of O2 free radicals (OFRs). In miscarriage, development of the placento-decidual interface is severely impaired leading to early and widespread onset of maternal blood flow and major oxidative degeneration. This mechanism is common to all miscarriages, with the time at which it occurs in the first trimester depending on the aetiology. In contrast, in pre-eclampsia the trophoblastic invasion is sufficient to allow early pregnancy phases of placentation but too shallow for complete transformation of the arterial utero-placental circulation, predisposing to a repetitive ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) phenomenon. We suggest that pre-eclampsia is a three-stage disorder with the primary pathology being an excessive or atypical maternal immune response. This would impair the placentation process leading to chronic oxidative stress in the placenta and finally to diffuse maternal endothelial cell dysfunction.
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            Vitamins C and E to prevent complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension.

            Oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism linking the poor placental perfusion characteristic of preeclampsia with the clinical manifestations of the disorder. We assessed the effects of antioxidant supplementation with vitamins C and E, initiated early in pregnancy, on the risk of serious adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes related to pregnancy-associated hypertension. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial involving nulliparous women who were at low risk for preeclampsia. Women were randomly assigned to begin daily supplementation with 1000 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E or matching placebo between the 9th and 16th weeks of pregnancy. The primary outcome was severe pregnancy-associated hypertension alone or severe or mild hypertension with elevated liver-enzyme levels, thrombocytopenia, elevated serum creatinine levels, eclamptic seizure, medically indicated preterm birth, fetal-growth restriction, or perinatal death. A total of 10,154 women underwent randomization. The two groups were similar with respect to baseline characteristics and adherence to the study drug. Outcome data were available for 9969 women. There was no significant difference between the vitamin and placebo groups in the rates of the primary outcome (6.1% and 5.7%, respectively; relative risk in the vitamin group, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 1.25) or in the rates of preeclampsia (7.2% and 6.7%, respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.24). Rates of adverse perinatal outcomes did not differ significantly between the groups. Vitamin C and E supplementation initiated in the 9th to 16th week of pregnancy in an unselected cohort of low-risk, nulliparous women did not reduce the rate of adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes related to pregnancy-associated hypertension (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00135707). 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications.

               ,  R H Haslam,  Simon Robinson (2006)
              Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins has been proposed to reduce the risk of preeclampsia and perinatal complications, but the effects of this intervention are uncertain. We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial of nulliparous women between 14 and 22 weeks of gestation. Women were assigned to daily supplementation with 1000 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E or placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) until delivery. Primary outcomes were the risks of maternal preeclampsia, death or serious outcomes in the infants (on the basis of definitions used by the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network), and delivering an infant whose birth weight was below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Of the 1877 women enrolled in the study, 935 were randomly assigned to the vitamin group and 942 to the placebo group. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. There were no significant differences between the vitamin and placebo groups in the risk of preeclampsia (6.0 percent and 5.0 percent, respectively; relative risk, 1.20; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.75), death or serious outcomes in the infant (9.5 percent and 12.1 percent; relative risk, 0.79; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.02), or having an infant with a birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age (8.7 percent and 9.9 percent; relative risk, 0.87; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.66 to 1.16). Supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy does not reduce the risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women, the risk of intrauterine growth restriction, or the risk of death or other serious outcomes in their infants. (Controlledtrials.com number, ISRCTN00416244.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                23 February 2017
                March 2017
                : 9
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Medical Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; bente311057@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Gynecology & Obstetrics Department, Herning Hospital, Gl. Landevej 61, 7400 Herning, Denmark; Finn.Friis.Lauszus@ 123456vest.rm.dk
                [3 ]Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Ridebanevej 9, Frederiksberg C, 1870 Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jopl@ 123456sund.ku.dk ; Tel.: +45-353-331-63
                Article
                nutrients-09-00186
                10.3390/nu9030186
                5372849
                28241487
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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