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      Usability of Mobile Technology to Screen for Drug-Drug Interactions in Kidney Transplant Patients

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          Abstract

          Background and Objectives: Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk for adverse safety events related to reduced renal function and polypharmacy. Health information technology tools have a precautionary role in improving safety in patients with kidney transplants who are at risk of drug-drug interactions. Materials and Methods: Usability testing of a drug-drug interaction inquiry system on a convenience sample of kidney transplant patients and their family members was conducted between January and April 2013 by a single interviewer. Each participant was provided with 35 tasks to complete on a cell phone with a manual keypad. The tasks were classified according to how it was completed: easily completed, noncritical error, or critical error (where a participant was unable to complete the given task without intervention by the interviewer). The final task was timed using a stop watch. Results: Out of a total of 16 volunteers, 15 completed the testing. The median time to complete the final task was 4 min (range: 2-9). In a cumulative total of 525 tasks, 33 critical errors were noted. Twelve participants had one or more critical errors. The most frequent critical errors were related to typing and spelling mistakes. Twelve out 15 participants were able to complete the final task without any critical errors. Conclusions: Understanding transplant patients' preference in technology use and adapting applications to a variety of technological portals will ensure the most effective use of targeted interventions in patient safety, particularly when applied to preventing drug-drug interactions.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Mobile Health Medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Trial

          Background Mobile phone based programs for kidney transplant recipients are promising tools for improving long-term graft outcomes and better managing comorbidities (eg, hypertension, diabetes). These tools provide an easy to use self-management framework allowing optimal medication adherence that is guided by the patients’ physiological data. This technology is also relatively inexpensive, has an intuitive interface, and provides the capability for real-time personalized feedback to help motivate patient self-efficacy. Automated summary reports of patients’ adherence and blood pressure can easily be uploaded to providers’ networks helping reduce clinical inertia by reducing regimen alteration time. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a prototype mobile health (mHealth) medication and blood pressure (BP) self-management system for kidney transplant patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Methods A smartphone enabled medication adherence and BP self-management system was developed using a patient and provider centered design. The development framework utilized self-determination theory with iterative stages that were guided and refined based on patient/provider feedback. A 3-month proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial was conducted in 20 hypertensive kidney transplant patients identified as non-adherent to their current medication regimen based on a month long screening using an electronic medication tray. Participants randomized to the mHealth intervention had the reminder functions of their electronic medication tray enabled and received a bluetooth capable BP monitor and a smartphone that received and transmitted encrypted physiological data and delivered reminders to measure BP using text messaging. Controls received standard of care and their adherence continued to be monitored with the medication tray reminders turned off. Providers received weekly summary reports of patient medication adherence and BP readings. Results Participation and retention rates were 41/55 (75%) and 31/34 (91%), respectively. The prototype system appears to be safe, highly acceptable, and useful to patients and providers. Compared to the standard care control group (SC), the mHealth intervention group exhibited significant improvements in medication adherence and significant reductions in clinic-measured systolic blood pressures across the monthly evaluations. Physicians made more anti-hypertensive medication adjustments in the mHealth group versus the standard care group (7 adjustments in 5 patients versus 3 adjustments in 3 patients) during the 3-month trial based on the information provided in the weekly reports. Conclusions These data support the acceptability and feasibility of the prototype mHealth system. Further trials with larger sample sizes and additional biomarkers (eg, whole blood medication levels) are needed to examine efficacy and effectiveness of the system for improving medication adherence and blood pressure control after kidney transplantation over longer time periods. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01859273; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01859273 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6IqfCa3A3).
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            Patient Attitudes Toward Mobile Phone-Based Health Monitoring: Questionnaire Study Among Kidney Transplant Recipients

            Background Mobile phone based remote monitoring of medication adherence and physiological parameters has the potential of improving long-term graft outcomes in the recipients of kidney transplants. This technology is promising as it is relatively inexpensive, can include intuitive software and may offer the ability to conduct close patient monitoring in a non-intrusive manner. This includes the optimal management of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. There is, however, a lack of data assessing the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward this technology, especially among ethnic minorities. Objective To assess the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward mobile phone based remote monitoring and management of their medical regimen; and to identify demographic or clinical characteristics that impact on this attitude. Methods After a 10 minute demonstration of a prototype mobile phone based monitoring system, a 10 item questionnaire regarding attitude toward remote monitoring and the technology was administered to the participants, along with the 10 item Perceived Stress Scale and the 7 item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results Between February and April 2012, a total of 99 renal transplant recipients were identified and agreed to participate in the survey. The results of the survey indicate that while 90% (87/97) of respondents own a mobile phone, only 7% (7/98) had any prior knowledge of mobile phone based remote monitoring. Despite this, the majority of respondents, 79% (78/99), reported a positive attitude toward the use of a prototype system if it came at no cost to themselves. Blacks were more likely than whites to own smartphones (43.1%, 28/65 vs 20.6%, 7/34; P=.03) and held a more positive attitude toward free use of the prototype system than whites (4.25±0.88 vs 3.76±1.07; P=.02). Conclusions The data demonstrates that kidney transplant recipients have a positive overall attitude toward mobile phone based health technology (mHealth). Additionally, the data demonstrates that most kidney transplant recipients own and are comfortable using mobile phones and that many of these patients already own and use smart mobile phones. The respondents felt that mHealth offers an opportunity for improved self-efficacy and improved provider driven medical management. Respondents were comfortable with the idea of being monitored using mobile technology and are confident that their privacy can be protected. The small subset of kidney transplant recipients who are less interested in mHealth may be less technologically adept as reflected by their lower mobile phone ownership rates. As a whole, kidney transplant recipients are receptive to the technology and believe in its utility.
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              Application of mobile phone technology for managing chemotherapy-associated side-effects.

              Novel mobile phone technology linked to a server that communicates patients' symptoms to healthcare professionals has been adapted to register the side- effects of chemotherapy and provide advice on management of toxicity. We report a feasibility study to examine the utility of home monitoring of patients' symptoms via a mobile phone. Six colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, entered symptom data onto user friendly screens on a mobile phone twice daily. This 'real time' self assessment of nausea, vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea and hand-foot syndrome and measurement of temperature was sent via a secured connection to a remote computer. In the event of moderate or severe symptoms (generating amber and red alerts respectively), the nurse was immediately alerted by the computer, via a pager. The nurse then contacted the patient to reinforce the automatic advice sent to the patient on their phone and to assess the patient using clinical algorithms. The patient used the mobile phones during the first two cycles of chemotherapy. The data were successfully analysed by the server software and alerts were generated alerting the study nurses to patients' symptoms at the appropriate time. There were 91 alerts-54 red and 37 amber; 54% (29/54) of the red alerts were data delay and transmission problems which were swiftly rectified. The remaining red alerts were managed appropriately by the study nurses. Both patients and staff felt confident in this approach to symptom management. This study demonstrates that the technology for monitoring patients' symptoms worked well. The patients felt secure in the knowledge that their symptoms were being closely monitored and that they were participating effectively in their own care management.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                September 2014
                19 July 2014
                : 40
                : 2
                : 97-104
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md., and bMediAurora Technologies, Irvine, Calif., USA
                Author notes
                *Prof. Matthew R. Weir, MD, Division of Nephrology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S. Greene Street, Department of Medicine, N3W143, Baltimore, MD 21201 (USA), E-Mail mweir@medicine.umaryland.edu
                Article
                364910 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:97-104
                10.1159/000364910
                25059671
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 5, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Report: Transplantation

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Drug interaction, Information technology , Kidney transplant

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