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      Tissue-Specific Utilization of Menaquinone-4 Results in the Prevention of Arterial Calcification in Warfarin-Treated Rats

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          Abstract

          The effects of vitamin K (phylloquinone: K1 and menaquinone-4: MK-4) on vascular calcification and their utilization in the arterial vessel wall were compared in the warfarin-treated rat model for arterial calcification. Warfarin-treated rats were fed diets containing K1, MK-4, or both. Both K1 and MK-4 are cofactors for the endoplasmic reticulum enzyme γ-glutamyl carboxylase but have a structurally different aliphatic side chain. Despite their similar in vitro cofactor activity we show that MK-4 and not K1 inhibits warfarin-induced arterial calcification. The total hepatic K1 accumulation was threefold higher than that of MK-4, whereas aortic MK-4 was three times that of K1. The utilization of K1 and MK-4 in various tissues was estimated by calculating the ratios between accumulated quinone and epoxide species. K1 and MK-4 were both equally utilized in the liver, but the aorta showed a more efficient utilization of MK-4. Therefore, the observed differences between K1 and MK-4 with respect to inhibition of arterial calcification may be explained by both differences in their tissue bioavailability and cofactor utilization in the reductase/carboxylase reaction. An alternative explanation may come from an as yet hypothetical function of the geranylgeranyl side chain of MK-4, which is a structural analogue of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and could interfere with a critical step in the mevalonate pathway.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Vitamin K

           M.J. Shearer (1995)
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            Effects of menatetrenone on the bone and calcium metabolism in osteoporosis: A double-blind placebo-controlled study

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              Vitamin K counteracts the effect of warfarin in liver but not in bone.

              Treatment with high dosages of Vitamin K completely inhibited the effect of Warfarin on blood coagulation but had essentially no ability to counteract the effect of Warfarin on the gamma-carboxylation of bone G1a protein (BGP; osteocalcin). Provided that rats received the appropriate dosage of Vitamin K prior to and concurrent with the administration of Warfarin, daily dosages as high as 7.7 mg Warfarin per 100 g body weight had no effect on blood coagulation times. This Warfarin dosage is approximately 150 times higher than the 50 micrograms per 100 g body weight which caused coagulation times to double in rats which did not receive Vitamin K. In dramatic contrast, the dosage of Warfarin required to reduce the gamma-carboxylation status of BGP to one-half normal, 30 micrograms per 100 g body weight, was essentially unaffected by Vitamin K treatment. These results indicate the existence of a major difference between the metabolism of Vitamin K by the hepatocytes which synthesize coagulation factors and the osteoblasts which synthesize BGP. The practical consequence of this difference is that it is now possible to antagonize the action of Vitamin K in osteoblasts, as well as in other cells which have the same Vitamin K metabolism, without affecting blood coagulation times.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2003
                December 2003
                29 January 2004
                : 40
                : 6
                : 531-537
                Affiliations
                Departments of aBiochemistry, bInternal Medicine, and cPharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                Article
                75344 J Vasc Res 2003;40:531–537
                10.1159/000075344
                14654717
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 23, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Paper

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