Raised plasma levels of insulin, glucose and glucagon are found in patients affected by ‘hyperinsulinism’. Obesity, hypertension, mammary plus ovary cysts and rheumatic symptoms are frequently observed in these patients. Sleep disorders and depression are also present in most subjects affected by this polysymptomatic disorder. The simultaneous increases of glucose, insulin and glucagon plasma levels seen in these patients indicate that the normal crosstalk between A cells, B cells and D cells is disrupted. With respect to this, it is well known that glucose excites B cells (which secrete insulin) and inhibits A cells (which secrete glucagon), which in turn excites D cells (which secrete somatostatin). Gastrointestinal hormones (incretins) modulate this crosstalk both directly and indirectly throughout pancreatic and hepatobiliary mechanisms. The above factors depend on autonomic nervous system mediation. For instance, acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves excites both B and A cells. Noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves and adrenaline secreted from the adrenal glands inhibit B cells and excite A cells, which are crowded with β<sub>2</sub>- and α<sub>2</sub>-receptors, respectively. Noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves also excites A cells by acting at α<sub>1</sub>-receptors located at this level. According to this, the excessive release of noradrenaline from these nerves should provoke an enhancement of glucagon secretion which will result in overexcitation of insulin secretion from B cells. That is the disorder seen in the so-called ‘hyperinsulinism’, in which raised plasma levels of glucose, insulin and glucagon coexist. Taking into account that neural sympathetic activity is positively correlated to the A5 noradrenergic nucleus and median raphe serotonergic neurons, and negatively correlated to the A6 noradrenergic, the dorsal raphe serotonergic and the C1 adrenergic neurons, we postulate that this unbalanced central nervous system circuitry is responsible for the hyperinsulinism syndrome.