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      IntCal09 and Marine09 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves, 0–50,000 Years cal BP

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          Abstract

          The IntCal04 and Marine04 radiocarbon calibration curves have been updated from 12 cal kBP (cal kBP is here defined as thousands of calibrated years before AD 1950), and extended to 50 cal kBP, utilizing newly available data sets that meet the IntCal Working Group criteria for pristine corals and other carbonates and for quantification of uncertainty in both the14C and calendar timescales as established in 2002. No change was made to the curves from 0–12 cal kBP. The curves were constructed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implementation of the random walk model used for IntCal04 and Marine04. The new curves were ratified at the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference in June 2009 and are available in the Supplemental Material atwww.radiocarbon.org.

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          Most cited references45

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          High-Precision Radiocarbon Age Calibration for Terrestrial and Marine Samples

          Single-year and decadal radiocarbon tree-ring ages are tabulated and discussed in terms of14C age calibration. The single-year data form the basis of a detailed14C age calibration curve for the cal ad 1510–1954 interval (“cal” denotes calibrated). The Seattle decadal data set (back to 11,617 cal BP, with 0 BP = ad 1950) is a component of the integrated decadal INTCAL9814C age curve (Stuiveret al.1998). Atmospheric14C ages can be transformed into14C ages of the global ocean using a carbon reservoir model. INTCAL9814C ages, used for these calculations, yield global ocean14C ages differing slightly from previously published ones (Stuiver and Braziunas 1993b). We include discussions of offsets, error multipliers, regional14C age differences and marine14C age response to oceanic and atmospheric forcing.
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            Radiocarbon Age Calibration of Marine Samples Back to 9000 Cal Yr BP

            Calibration curves spanning several millennia are now available in this special issue ofRadiocarbon. These curves, nearly all derived from the14C age determinations of wood samples, are to be used for the age conversion of samples that were formed through use of atmospheric CO2. When samples are formed in reservoirs (eg, lakes and oceans) that differ in specific14C content from the atmosphere, an age adjustment is needed because a conventional14C age, although taking into account14C (and13C) fractionation, does not correct for the difference in specific14C activity (Stuiver & Polach, 1977). The14C ages of samples grown in these environments are too old, and a reservoir age correction has to be applied. This phenomenon has been referred to as the reservoir effect (Stuiver & Polach, 1977).
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              A Large Drop in Atmospheric 14C/12C and Reduced Melting in the Younger Dryas, Documented with 230Th Ages of Corals

              Paired carbon-14 ((14)C) and thorium-230((230)Th) ages were determined on fossil corals from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The ages were used to calibrate part of the (14)C time scale and to estimate rates of sea-level rise during the last deglaciation. An abrupt offset between the (14)C and (230)Th ages suggests that the atmospheric (14)C/(12)C ratio dropped by 15 percent during the latter part of and after the Younger Dryas (YD). This prominent drop coincides with greatly reduced rates of sea-level rise. Reduction of melting because of cooler conditions during the YD may have caused an increase in the rate of ocean ventilation, which caused the atmospheric (14)C/(12)C ratio to fall. The record of sea-level rise also shows that globally averaged rates of melting were relatively high at the beginning of the YD. Thus, these measurements satisfy one of the conditions required by the hypothesis that the diversion of meltwater from the Mississippi to the St. Lawrence River triggered the YD event.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Radiocarbon
                Radiocarbon
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0033-8222
                1945-5755
                2009
                July 2016
                : 51
                : 04
                : 1111-1150
                Article
                10.1017/S0033822200034202
                f9b4049b-f41c-4366-84f8-8ce235cfd8e0
                © 2009
                History

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