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      17β-Estradiol Inhibits PCSK9-Mediated LDLR Degradation Through GPER/PLC Activation in HepG2 Cells

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          Abstract

          Plasma levels of PCSK9 are significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Pharmacologically increased estrogen levels have been shown to lower PCSK9 and LDL-C levels in animals and humans. The action of estrogen suggests that it has the ability to prevent PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation in liver cells. However, little is known about how estrogen alters PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation. Here, we report that 17β-estradiol (βE2) reduces PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation by a mechanism that involves activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). In cultured HepG2 cells, βE2 prevented the internalization of PCSK9, which subsequently lead to PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation. The altered LDLR levels also resulted in an increase in LDL uptake that was not observed in the absence of PCSK9. In addition, we showed that clathrin was rapidly increased in the presence of PCSK9, and this increase was blocked by βE2 incubation, suggesting rapid recruitment of clathrin in HepG2 cells. PLCγ activation and intracellular Ca 2+ release were both increased due to the rapid effect of estrogen. By using a GPER antagonist G15, we demonstrated that the GPER mediates the action of estrogen. Together, the data from this in vitro study demonstrate that estrogen can regulate LDLR levels mainly through GPER activation, which prevents PCSK9-dependent LDLR degradation in HepG2 cells.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.

          Despite decades of accumulated observational evidence, the balance of risks and benefits for hormone use in healthy postmenopausal women remains uncertain. To assess the major health benefits and risks of the most commonly used combined hormone preparation in the United States. Estrogen plus progestin component of the Women's Health Initiative, a randomized controlled primary prevention trial (planned duration, 8.5 years) in which 16608 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years with an intact uterus at baseline were recruited by 40 US clinical centers in 1993-1998. Participants received conjugated equine estrogens, 0.625 mg/d, plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5 mg/d, in 1 tablet (n = 8506) or placebo (n = 8102). The primary outcome was coronary heart disease (CHD) (nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome. A global index summarizing the balance of risks and benefits included the 2 primary outcomes plus stroke, pulmonary embolism (PE), endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and death due to other causes. On May 31, 2002, after a mean of 5.2 years of follow-up, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping the trial of estrogen plus progestin vs placebo because the test statistic for invasive breast cancer exceeded the stopping boundary for this adverse effect and the global index statistic supported risks exceeding benefits. This report includes data on the major clinical outcomes through April 30, 2002. Estimated hazard ratios (HRs) (nominal 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were as follows: CHD, 1.29 (1.02-1.63) with 286 cases; breast cancer, 1.26 (1.00-1.59) with 290 cases; stroke, 1.41 (1.07-1.85) with 212 cases; PE, 2.13 (1.39-3.25) with 101 cases; colorectal cancer, 0.63 (0.43-0.92) with 112 cases; endometrial cancer, 0.83 (0.47-1.47) with 47 cases; hip fracture, 0.66 (0.45-0.98) with 106 cases; and death due to other causes, 0.92 (0.74-1.14) with 331 cases. Corresponding HRs (nominal 95% CIs) for composite outcomes were 1.22 (1.09-1.36) for total cardiovascular disease (arterial and venous disease), 1.03 (0.90-1.17) for total cancer, 0.76 (0.69-0.85) for combined fractures, 0.98 (0.82-1.18) for total mortality, and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for the global index. Absolute excess risks per 10 000 person-years attributable to estrogen plus progestin were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 8 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while absolute risk reductions per 10 000 person-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures. The absolute excess risk of events included in the global index was 19 per 10 000 person-years. Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 5.2-year follow-up among healthy postmenopausal US women. All-cause mortality was not affected during the trial. The risk-benefit profile found in this trial is not consistent with the requirements for a viable intervention for primary prevention of chronic diseases, and the results indicate that this regimen should not be initiated or continued for primary prevention of CHD.
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            Heart disease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association.

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              Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.

              Despite decades of use and considerable research, the role of estrogen alone in preventing chronic diseases in postmenopausal women remains uncertain. To assess the effects on major disease incidence rates of the most commonly used postmenopausal hormone therapy in the United States. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled disease prevention trial (the estrogen-alone component of the Women's Health Initiative [WHI]) conducted in 40 US clinical centers beginning in 1993. Enrolled were 10 739 postmenopausal women, aged 50-79 years, with prior hysterectomy, including 23% of minority race/ethnicity. Women were randomly assigned to receive either 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) or placebo. The primary outcome was coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence (nonfatal myocardial infarction or CHD death). Invasive breast cancer incidence was the primary safety outcome. A global index of risks and benefits, including these primary outcomes plus stroke, pulmonary embolism (PE), colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and deaths from other causes, was used for summarizing overall effects. In February 2004, after reviewing data through November 30, 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) decided to end the intervention phase of the trial early. Estimated hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for CEE vs placebo for the major clinical outcomes available through February 29, 2004 (average follow-up 6.8 years), were: CHD, 0.91 (0.75-1.12) with 376 cases; breast cancer, 0.77 (0.59-1.01) with 218 cases; stroke, 1.39 (1.10-1.77) with 276 cases; PE, 1.34 (0.87-2.06) with 85 cases; colorectal cancer, 1.08 (0.75-1.55) with 119 cases; and hip fracture, 0.61 (0.41-0.91) with 102 cases. Corresponding results for composite outcomes were: total cardiovascular disease, 1.12 (1.01-1.24); total cancer, 0.93 (0.81-1.07); total fractures, 0.70 (0.63-0.79); total mortality, 1.04 (0.88-1.22), and the global index, 1.01 (0.91-1.12). For the outcomes significantly affected by CEE, there was an absolute excess risk of 12 additional strokes per 10 000 person-years and an absolute risk reduction of 6 fewer hip fractures per 10 000 person-years. The estimated excess risk for all monitored events in the global index was a nonsignificant 2 events per 10 000 person-years. The use of CEE increases the risk of stroke, decreases the risk of hip fracture, and does not affect CHD incidence in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy over an average of 6.8 years. A possible reduction in breast cancer risk requires further investigation. The burden of incident disease events was equivalent in the CEE and placebo groups, indicating no overall benefit. Thus, CEE should not be recommended for chronic disease prevention in postmenopausal women.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                30 January 2020
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1Department of Physiology, West China School of Basic Medical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University , Chengdu, China
                2College of Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Chengdu, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Yong Zhu, East Carolina University, United States

                Reviewed by: Chen Wen Fang, Qingdao University, China; Kun Don Yi, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, United States

                *Correspondence: Li-Min Yue yuelimin@ 123456scu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Experimental Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2019.00930
                7002320
                Copyright © 2020 Fu, Gao, Zhang, Dai, Zou and Yue.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 11, Words: 6465
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: No. 81771542
                Funded by: Department of Science and Technology of Sichuan Province 10.13039/501100004829
                Award ID: No. 2017JY0021
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Original Research

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                clathrin, 17β-estradiol, ldlr degradation, pcsk9, gper activation

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