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      Tanshinol ameliorates CCl 4-induced liver fibrosis in rats through the regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB/IκBα signaling pathway

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          Abstract

          Tanshinol, a water-soluble component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has a variety of biological activities involving anti-fibrotic effect. However, the exact role and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study mainly focused on the anti-hepatic fibrotic activities and mechanisms of tanshinol on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation pathways. The rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: control, model, tanshinol 20 mg/kg, and tanshinol 40 mg/kg. Except for the control group, CCl 4 was used to induce liver fibrosis processing for 8 weeks, meanwhile rats in tanshinol groups were intraperitoneally injected with additional tanshinol. Control group simultaneously received the same volumes of olive oil and saline. The potentially protective effect and mechanisms of tanshinol on liver fibrosis in rats were evaluated. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin were obviously lower in the tanshinol treatment groups related to model group. Compared with the model group, the levels of hyaluronic acid, type IV collagen, Laminin (LN), and procollagen III peptide (PIIIP) in serum were significantly decreased after tanshinol treatment. Furthermore, tanshinol could regulate Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and increase the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and also decrease the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) to against damage induced by oxidative stress. Simultaneously tanshinol could regulate nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway to inhibit expression of inflammation factors, including transforming growth factor-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, Cox-2, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. In summary, our research demonstrated that tanshinol has protective effect on CCl 4-induced liver fibrosis via inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, which may be associated with the regulation of nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2/hemeoxygenase-a and nuclear factor kappa B/inhibitor of kappa B alpha signaling pathways.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Role of oxidative stress and molecular changes in liver fibrosis: a review.

          Liver fibrosis represents a health problem with significant morbidity and mortality that affects 100 million people worldwide. It is a final pathway to several chronic liver diseases and is characterized by excess collagen and accumulation of extracellular matrix in response to chronic hepatocellular damage. Clinical and experimental data suggest that oxidative stress (OS) mediates the progression of fibrosis, and that OS-related molecules may act as mediators of molecular and cellular events implicated in liver fibrosis. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in producing liver damage and initiating hepatic fibrogenesis. OS disrupts lipids, proteins and DNA, induces necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocytes and amplifies the inflammatory response. ROS also stimulate the production of profibrogenic mediators from Kupffer cells and circulating inflammatory cells and directly activate hepatic stellate cells, resulting in the initiation of fibrosis. Advances in understanding the mechanisms involved in fibrosis have identified new molecular targets with therapeutic potential for more targeted and personalized control of this disease. This review will highlight recent concepts in OS, antioxidants and the molecular pathways involved in hepatic fibrosis.
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            Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for liver fibrosis

            Currently, the most effective treatment for end-stage liver fibrosis is liver transplantation; however, transplantation is limited by a shortage of donor organs, surgical complications, immunological rejection, and high medical costs. Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has been suggested as an effective alternate approach for the treatment of hepatic diseases. MSCs have the potential to differentiate into hepatocytes, and therapeutic value exists in their immune-modulatory properties and secretion of trophic factors, such as growth factors and cytokines. In addition, MSCs can suppress inflammatory responses, reduce hepatocyte apoptosis, increase hepatocyte regeneration, regress liver fibrosis and enhance liver functionality. Despite these advantages, issues remain; MSCs also have fibrogenic potential and the capacity to promote tumor cell growth and oncogenicity. This paper summarizes the properties of MSCs for regenerative medicine and their therapeutic mechanisms and clinical application in the treatment of liver fibrosis. We also present several outstanding risks, including their fibrogenic potential and their capacity to promote pre-existing tumor cell growth and oncogenicity.
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              Inhibition of inhibitor of kappaB kinases stimulates hepatic stellate cell apoptosis and accelerated recovery from rat liver fibrosis.

              Resolution of liver fibrosis is associated with clearance of hepatic myofibroblasts by apoptosis; development of strategies that promote this process in a selective way is therefore important. The aim of this study was to determine whether the inhibitor of kappaB kinase suppressor sulfasalazine stimulates hepatic myofibroblast apoptosis and recovery from fibrosis. Hepatic myofibroblasts were generated by culture activation of rat and human hepatic stellate cells. Fibrosis was established in rat livers by chronic injury with carbon tetrachloride followed by recovery with or without sulfasalazine (150 mg/kg) treatment. Treatment of hepatic stellate cells with sulfasalazine (0.5-2.0 mmol/L) induced apoptosis of activated rat and human hepatic stellate cells. A single in vivo administration of sulfasalazine promoted accelerated recovery from fibrosis as assessed by improved fibrosis score, selective clearance of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive myofibroblasts, reduced hepatic procollagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 messenger RNA expression, and increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity. Mechanistic studies showed that sulfasalazine selectively blocks nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent gene transcription, inhibits hepatic stellate cell expression of Gadd45beta, stimulates phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase 2, and promotes apoptosis by a mechanism that is prevented by the Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125. As further evidence for a survival role for the inhibitor of kappaB kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in activated hepatic stellate cells, a highly selective cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of kappaB kinase activation also stimulated hepatic stellate cell apoptosis via a Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB pathway is sufficient to increase the rate at which activated hepatic stellate cells undergo apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, and drugs that selectively target inhibitor of kappaB kinase have potential as antifibrotics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                17 May 2018
                : 12
                : 1281-1292
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai 9th People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yongfang Yuan, Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai 9th People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 Mo He Road, Shanghai 201999, China, Tel +86 21 5678 6907, Fax +86 21 5678 6907, Email nmxyyf@ 123456126.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-12-1281
                10.2147/DDDT.S159546
                5961642
                © 2018 Wang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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