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The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life is the
essence of humanness. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that
operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include the temporal
extension of agency through intentionality and forethought, self-regulation by self-reactive
influence, and self-reflectiveness about one's capabilities, quality of functioning,
and the meaning and purpose of one's life pursuits. Personal agency operates within
a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people
are producers as well as products of social systems. Social cognitive theory distinguishes
among three modes of agency: direct personal agency, proxy agency that relies on others
to act on one's behest to secure desired outcomes, and collective agency exercised
through socially coordinative and interdependent effort. Growing transnational embeddedness
and interdependence are placing a premium on collective efficacy to exercise control
over personal destinies and national life.