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      Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency Type 1 due to a Novel Compound Heterozygous MC2R Mutation

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          Abstract

          Objective: Description of the clinical, biochemical and genetic features of a Polish patient with familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Methods: Detailed clinical investigation, hormonal analysis and sequencing of the coding region of the melanocortin 2 receptor ( MC2R) gene in this patient. Results: We report on a 3-month-old boy with familial glucocorticoid deficiency who presented at the age of 3 months with skin hyperpigmentation, muscle weakness, mild jaundice and constipation. Hormonal analyses revealed high ACTH and TSH serum concentrations, low serum cortisol concentration along with normal blood electrolytes. On hydrocortisone supplementation, the disease symptoms disappeared and the child recovered completely. His physical and mental development progresses normally. Genetic analysis disclosed a novel compound heterozygous MC2R mutation p.Leu46fs and p.Val49Met. Conclusion: The heterozygous p.Leu46fs mutation adds to the small number of MC2R nonsense mutations and is the first frameshift mutation within the first transmembrane domain of the receptor. According to molecular modeling the Val49Met mutation results in a structural change of the first transmembrane domain and in a potential novel interaction of the transmembrane domains I and VII.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Tall stature in familial glucocorticoid deficiency.

          Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) has frequently been associated with tall stature in affected individuals. The clinical, biochemical and genetic features of five such patients were studied with the aim of clarifying the underlying mechanisms of excessive growth in these patients. Five patients with a clinical diagnosis of FGD are described in whom the disorder resulted from a variety of novel or previously described missense or nonsense mutations of the ACTH receptor (MC2-R). All patients demonstrated excessive linear growth over that predicted from parental indices and increased head circumference. Growth hormone and IGF-I-values were normal. Growth charts suggest that the excessive growth is reduced to normal following the introduction of glucocorticoid replacement. A characteristic facial appearance including hypertelorism, marked epicanthic folds and prominent frontal bossing was noted. These findings indicate that ACTH resistance resulting from a defective ACTH receptor may be associated with abnormalities of cartilage and/or bone growth independently of the GH-IGF-I axis, but probably dependent on ACTH actions through other melanocortin receptors.
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            Inherited ACTH insensitivity illuminates the mechanisms of ACTH action.

            Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) insensitivity is a potentially lethal inherited disorder of ACTH signalling in the adrenal. Inactivating mutations of the ACTH receptor account for approximately 25% of these cases. A second genetic cause for this syndrome has recently been identified in the MRAP gene. The MRAP protein appears to function in the trafficking and cell surface expression of the ACTH receptor, and might indicate the existence of more widespread G-protein-coupled receptor trafficking mechanisms. Molecular defects underlying other causes of ACTH insensitivity syndromes will probably contribute further to our understanding of these pathways.
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              Neonatal cholestasis, hypoglycemia, and congenital hypopituitarism.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2008
                June 2008
                17 March 2008
                : 69
                : 6
                : 363-368
                Affiliations
                aInstitute of Physiotherapy, University of Rzeszów, Poland; bChildren’s Hospital, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, and cDepartment of Neuropediatrics, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany
                Article
                117393 Horm Res 2008;69:363–368
                10.1159/000117393
                18504396
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 22, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Novel Insights from Clinical Practice

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