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      Efficacy and tolerability of a hydrocodone extended-release tablet formulated with abuse-deterrence technology for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain in patients with osteoarthritis or low back pain

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          Abstract

          This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of hydrocodone extended release (ER) developed with abuse-deterrence technology to provide sustained pain relief and limit effects of alcohol and tablet manipulation on drug release. Eligible patients with chronic moderate-to-severe low back or osteoarthritis pain were titrated to an analgesic dose of hydrocodone ER (15–90 mg) and randomized to placebo or hydrocodone ER every 12 hours. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to week 12 in weekly average pain intensity (API; 0=no pain, 10=worst pain imaginable). Secondary measures included percentage of patients with >33% and >50% increases from baseline in weekly API, change from baseline in weekly worst pain intensity, supplemental opioid usage, aberrant drug-use behaviors, and adverse events. Overall, 294 patients were randomized and received ≥1 dose of placebo (n=148) or hydrocodone ER (n=146). Weekly API did not differ significantly between hydrocodone ER and placebo at week 12 ( P=0.134); although, in post hoc analyses, the change in weekly API was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER when excluding the lowest dose (15 mg; least squares mean, −0.20 vs 0.40; P=0.032). Significantly more patients had >33% and >50% increase in weekly API with placebo ( P<0.05), and mean weekly worst pain intensity was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER at week 12 ( P=0.026). Supplemental medication usage was higher with placebo (86%) than hydrocodone ER (79%). Incidence of aberrant drug-use behaviors was low, and adverse events were similar between groups. This study did not meet the primary endpoint, although results support the effectiveness of this hydrocodone ER formulation in managing chronic low back or osteoarthritis pain. Use of the hydrocodone ER 15-mg dose, a robust placebo response, and use of supplemental analgesics, particularly in the placebo group, may have limited detection of a statistically significant treatment effect, and additional research is needed to clarify these findings.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain.

          Use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain has increased substantially. The American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine commissioned a systematic review of the evidence on chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to review the evidence and formulate recommendations. Although evidence is limited, the expert panel concluded that chronic opioid therapy can be an effective therapy for carefully selected and monitored patients with chronic noncancer pain. However, opioids are also associated with potentially serious harms, including opioid-related adverse effects and outcomes related to the abuse potential of opioids. The recommendations presented in this document provide guidance on patient selection and risk stratification; informed consent and opioid management plans; initiation and titration of chronic opioid therapy; use of methadone; monitoring of patients on chronic opioid therapy; dose escalations, high-dose opioid therapy, opioid rotation, and indications for discontinuation of therapy; prevention and management of opioid-related adverse effects; driving and work safety; identifying a medical home and when to obtain consultation; management of breakthrough pain; chronic opioid therapy in pregnancy; and opioid-related policies. Safe and effective chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain requires clinical skills and knowledge in both the principles of opioid prescribing and on the assessment and management of risks associated with opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion. Although evidence is limited in many areas related to use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain, this guideline provides recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary expert panel after a systematic review of the evidence.
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            Systematic review: opioid treatment for chronic back pain: prevalence, efficacy, and association with addiction.

            The prevalence, efficacy, and risk for addiction for persons receiving opioids for chronic back pain are unclear. To determine the prevalence of opioid treatment, whether opioid medications are effective, and the prevalence of substance use disorders among patients receiving opioid medications for chronic back pain. English-language studies from MEDLINE (1966-March 2005), EMBASE (1966-March 2005), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (to 4th quarter 2004), PsychInfo (1966-March 2005), and retrieved references. Articles that studied an adult, nonobstetric sample; used oral, topical, or transdermal opioids; and focused on treatment for chronic back pain. Two investigators independently extracted data and determined study quality. Opioid prescribing varied by treatment setting (range, 3% to 66%). Meta-analysis of the 4 studies assessing the efficacy of opioids compared with placebo or a nonopioid control did not show reduced pain with opioids (g, -0.199 composite standardized mean difference [95% CI, -0.49 to 0.11]; P = 0.136). Meta-analysis of the 5 studies directly comparing the efficacy of different opioids demonstrated a nonsignificant reduction in pain from baseline (g, -0.93 composite standardized mean difference [CI, -1.89 to -0.03]; P = 0.055). The prevalence of lifetime substance use disorders ranged from 36% to 56%, and the estimates of the prevalence of current substance use disorders were as high as 43%. Aberrant medication-taking behaviors ranged from 5% to 24%. Retrieval and publication biases and poor study quality. No trial evaluating the efficacy of opioids was longer than 16 weeks. Opioids are commonly prescribed for chronic back pain and may be efficacious for short-term pain relief. Long-term efficacy (> or =16 weeks) is unclear. Substance use disorders are common in patients taking opioids for back pain, and aberrant medication-taking behaviors occur in up to 24% of cases.
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              Two new rating scales for opiate withdrawal.

              Two new rating scales for measuring the signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal are presented. The Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) contains 16 symptoms whose intensity the patient rates on a scale of 0 (not at all) to 4 (extremely). The Objective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (OOWS) contains 13 physically observable signs, rated present or absent, based on a timed period of observation of the patient by a rater. Opiate abusers admitted to a detoxification ward had significantly higher scores on the SOWS and OOWS before receiving methadone as compared to after receiving methadone for 2 days. Opiate abusers seeking treatment were challenged either with placebo or with 0.4 mg naloxone. Postchallenge SOWS and OOWS scores were significantly higher than prechallenge scores in the naloxone but not the placebo group. We have demonstrated good interrater reliability for the OOWS and good intrasubject reliability over time for both scales in controls and in patients on a methadone maintenance program. These scales are demonstrated to be valid and reliable indicators of the severity of the opiate withdrawal syndrome over a wide range of common signs and symptoms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2015
                15 September 2015
                : 8
                : 623-636
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Gold Coast Research, LLC, Plantation, FL, USA
                [2 ]Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R & D, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Martin E Hale, Gold Coast Research, LLC, 499 NW 70th Avenue, #200, Plantation, FL 33317, USA, Tel +1 954 659 3399, Fax +1 954 659 3400, Email goldcoast@ 123456halemd.com
                Article
                jpr-8-623
                10.2147/JPR.S83930
                4576898
                © 2015 Hale et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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