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      Role of Nitric Oxide in Inflammatory Conditions



      S. Karger AG

      Nitric oxide, Inflammation, Kidney, Arginine, Nephritis, Polyamines

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          Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important regulatory/modulatory role in a variety of inflammatory conditions. NO is a small, short-lived molecule that is released from a variety of cells in response to homeostatic and pathologic stimuli. It may act as a vasodilator and a platelet inhibitor and may interfere with adhesion molecules to prevent neutrophil adhesion. NO release may also lead to the formation of highly reactive species such as peroxynitrite and stable nitrosothiols and may cause mitochondrial damage and nitration of protein tyrosine residues. In addition, NO inhibits cell proliferation via inhibition of polyamine synthesis and cell uptake and may well act as a ‘brake’ on the proliferative response following cytokine exposure. All three isoforms of nitric oxide synthases are found in the kidney during inflammation. The site of NO release impacts significantly on its net function and structural impact. NO plays a protective role in many forms of immune injury, such as nephrotoxic serum-induced glomerulonephritis, autoimmune tubular interstitital nephritis, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. NO overproduction in sepsis, after cytokine exposure, inducible NO synthase transcription, and local inflammation can autoinhibit endothelial NO synthase, leading to selective renal and mesenteric vasoconstriction.

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          Most cited references 9

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          A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality.

          Transsexuals have the strong feeling, often from childhood onwards, of having been born the wrong sex. The possible psychogenic or biological aetiology of transsexuality has been the subject of debate for many years. Here we show that the volume of the central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BSTc), a brain area that is essential for sexual behaviour, is larger in men than in women. A female-sized BSTc was found in male-to-female transsexuals. The size of the BSTc was not influenced by sex hormones in adulthood and was independent of sexual orientation. Our study is the first to show a female brain structure in genetically male transsexuals and supports the hypothesis that gender identity develops as a result of an interaction between the developing brain and sex hormones.
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            Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis reduces the hypotension induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides in the rat in vivo.

            E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 15 mg kg-1 i.v.) produced a long-lasting reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in the anaesthetized rat. Inhibition of nitric oxide endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) synthesis with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (MeArg, 1 mg kg-1 min-1 i.v. for 30 min) produced an increase in MAP and largely attenuated the LPS-induced hypotension; both effects were significantly reversed with L-arginine (6 mg kg-1 min-1 i.v.). When compared to MeArg, phenylephrine (300 mg kg-1 h-1 i.v.) produced a similar pressor response, but much less attenuation of the hypotensive response to LPS. Thus, a stimulation of EDRF release contributes to the LPS-induced hypotension in the anaesthetized rat.
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              Expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase in human glomerulonephritis.

              The presence of nitric oxide (NO) in the kidney has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human glomerulonephritis. However, the exact type of glomerular cells that express NO synthase (NOS) and the NOS isoform involved in the local production of NO has not been identified in the human diseased kidney. We examined the expression of three isoforms of NOS, inducible NOS (iNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and brain NOS (bNOS) in the renal tissue of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN, N = 10), lupus nephritis (LN, N = 5), membranous nephropathy (MN, N = 5) and minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS, N = 5). Sections were immunostained and the correlation between the expression of each NOS and the degree of glomerular injury in that section was also examined. Normal portions of surgically resected kidneys served as controls. eNOS was present in glomerular endothelial cells and endothelium of cortical vessels in the control and diseased kidneys. iNOS was localized in mesangial cells, glomerular epithelial cells and infiltrating cells in the diseased glomeruli, whereas immunostaining for iNOS was hardly detected in control kidneys. In addition, the expression pattern of eNOS in each glomerulus was the reverse of that of iNOS. In IgAN and LN, the extent of staining for eNOS correlated negatively with the degree of glomerular injury, while the extent of staining for iNOS correlated positively with the degree of glomerular injury in the same tissues. bNOS was not detected in normal or nephritic glomeruli. Our results indicate the presence of a NO pathway in human diseased kidney, and suggest that NO derived from eNOS and iNOS may be involved in the progression of renal diseases and that NO derived from each NOS may play an important role in different way in human inflamed glomeruli.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                April 2002
                08 April 2002
                : 90
                : 4
                : 373-378
                University of California, San Diego, Calif., and Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, Calif., USA
                54723 Nephron 2002;90:373–378
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 54, Pages: 6
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                Distinguished Scientists Lecture Series. Section Editors: J.C.M. Chan; R.J. Krieg, Jr.; J.I. Scheinmann (Richmond, Va.)

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Nitric oxide, Polyamines, Nephritis, Arginine, Kidney, Inflammation


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