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      Human Cortical Fibroblast Responses to High Glucose and Hypoxia

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Approximately 30% of individuals with diabetes mellitus are susceptible to diabetic nephropathy, whereas ischemic injury uniformly induces renal impairment. As matrix accumulation correlates with progressive renal disease we assessed parameters associated with matrix turnover in response to high glucose ± hypoxia in human cortical fibroblasts (CF). Methods: CF were grown to confluence and exposed to media containing 5 or 25 mmol/l D-glucose for 72 h with or without a superimposed hypoxic insult. Results: High glucose increased cellular protein content (p < 0.05). Combined high glucose and hypoxia induced a further increase in cellular protein content (p < 0.005), suggestive of a synergistic hypertrophic effect. MMP secretion corresponded inversely with changes in TIMP expression. In cell cultures derived from 2/3 of patients, high glucose increased MMP-9 (p < 0.0005) and MMP-2 (p < 0.005) while TIMP-1 was reduced (p = 0.05). In the remaining cell cultures derived from 1/3 of patients, MMP-2 was reduced (p < 0.0001) while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were both increased (p < 0.05). In contrast, hypoxia induced uniform reductions in MMP-9 and MMP-2 in both normal and high glucose conditions. High glucose increased the expression of PAI-1 mRNA (p < 0.05) in all patients independent of changes in the MMP-TIMP axis. Conclusions: In summary, variability was observed in the MMP-TIMP axis following exposure to high glucose. In contrast, high glucose uniformly induces PAI-1 expression. Hypoxic insults uniformly reduce matrix breakdown independent of the prevailing glucose conditions.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Hypoxia promotes fibrogenesis in human renal fibroblasts.

          The mechanisms underlying progressive renal fibrosis are unknown, but the common association of fibrosis and microvascular loss suggests that hypoxia per se may be a fibrogenic stimulus. To determine whether human renal fibroblasts (HRFs), the primary matrix-producing cells in the tubulointerstitium, possess oxygen-sensitive responses relevant to fibrogenesis, cells were exposed to 1% O2 in vitro. Hypoxia simultaneously stimulated extracellular matrix synthesis and suppressed turnover with increased production of collagen alpha1(I) (Coll-I), decreased expression of collagenase, and increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. These effects are time dependent, require new RNA and protein synthesis, and are specific to hypoxia. The changes in Coll-I and TIMP-1 gene expression involve a heme-protein O2 sensor and protein kinase- and tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling. Although hypoxia induced transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), neutralizing anti-TGF-beta1-antibody did not block hypoxia-induced Coll-I and TIMP-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore, hypoxic-cell conditioned-medium had no effect on the expression of these mRNAs in naive fibroblasts, suggesting direct effects on gene transcription. Transient transfections identified a hypoxia response element (HRE) in the TIMP-1 promoter and demonstrated HIF-1-dependent promoter activation by decreased ambient pO2. These data suggest that hypoxia co-ordinately up-regulates matrix production and decreases turnover in renal fibroblasts. The results support a role for hypoxia in the pathogenesis of fibrosis and provide evidence for novel, direct hypoxic effects on the expression of genes involved in fibrogenesis.
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            Polymorphism in matrix metalloproteinase gene promoters: implication in regulation of gene expression and susceptibility of various diseases.

             Shu Ye (2000)
            The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can degrade a range of extracellular matrix proteins and have been implicated in connective tissue destruction and remodelling associated with cancer invasion and metastasis, cartilage destruction in arthritis, atherosclerotic plaque rupture, and the development of aneurysms. Recently, naturally occurring sequence variation has been detected in the promoter of a number of MMP genes. These genetic polymorphisms have been shown to have allele-specific effects on the transcriptional activities of MMP gene promoters, and to be associated with susceptibility to coronary heart disease, aneurysms and cancers. These findings indicate that variation in the MMP genes may contribute to inter-individual differences in susceptibility to these common, complex diseases, likely through effects on the balance between the synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins.
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              Decreased matrix degradation in diabetic nephropathy: effects of ACE inhibition on the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases.

              Extracellular matrix accumulation is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Increased matrix synthesis has been well documented but the effects of diabetes on degradative pathways, particularly in the in vivo setting, have not been fully explored. Furthermore, the effect of renoprotective therapies on matrix accumulation through these pathways has not been examined. We investigated the degradative pathway of type IV collagen and the effects of ACE inhibition in experimental diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced in 16 rats by administrating streptozocin; 8 of the diabetic rats were allocated at random to receive the ACE inhibitor perindopril (2 mg/l) in their drinking water and 8 age and weight matched rats served as controls. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase ( MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase ( TIMP) was measured by RT-PCR and type IV collagen content by immunohistochemistry. MMP activities were determined by degradation of a radiolabelled substrate and by zymography. Six months of diabetes was associated with a decrease in mRNA and enzymatic activity of MMP-9 (21 % and 51 % respectively, p < 0.05 vs control) and a 51 % increase in TIMP-1 mRNA ( p < 0.05 vs control). By contrast, MMP-2 mRNA was increased but its activity decreased (43 % and 43 % respectively, p < 0.05 vs control). Total degradative capacity of kidney tissue from diabetic rats was also lower (Control: 48 +/- 7 %, Diabetic: 33 +/- 6 %, p < 0.05). Activation of latent MMPs with amino-phenylmercuric acetate increased matrix degradation by two-fold. However the relative decrease associated with experimental diabetes still remained. All diabetes-associated changes in MMP and TIMP mRNA and activities were attenuated by perindopril treatment in association with reduced type IV collagen accumulation. These results indicate that the impairment of matrix degradation contributes to matrix accumulation in diabetic nephropathy and that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition could in part be mediated by modulation of changes in matrix degradative pathways.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2004
                April 2004
                30 April 2004
                : 96
                : 4
                : p121-p129
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medicine, University of Sydney, Kolling Institute, Royal North Shore Hospital, bSutton Laboratories, Royal North Shore Hospital, cNorthern Clinical School, University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW; dSchool of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland; eDepartment of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia
                Article
                77383 Nephron Physiol 2004;96:p121–p129
                10.1159/000077383
                15122058
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 21, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/77383
                Categories
                Original Paper

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