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      The Dynamics of Microcystis Genotypes and Microcystin Production and Associations with Environmental Factors during Blooms in Lake Chaohu, China

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          Abstract

          Lake Chaohu, which is a large, shallow, hypertrophic freshwater lake in southeastern China, has been experiencing lake-wide toxic Microcystis blooms in recent decades. To illuminate the relationships between microcystin (MC) production, the genotypic composition of the Microcystis community and environmental factors, water samples and associated environmental data were collected from June to October 2012 within Lake Chaohu. The Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and HPLC, respectively. The results showed that the abundances of Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations varied on spatial and temporal scales. Microcystis exists as a mixed population of toxic and non-toxic genotypes, and the proportion of toxic Microcystis genotypes ranged from 9.43% to 87.98%. Both Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that throughout the entire lake, the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations showed significant positive correlation with the total phosphorus and water temperature, suggesting that increases in temperature together with the phosphorus concentrations may promote more frequent toxic Microcystis blooms and higher concentrations of MC. Whereas, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was negatively correlated with the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations, indicating that rising DIC concentrations may suppress toxic Microcystis abundance and reduce the MC concentrations in the future. Therefore, our results highlight the fact that future eutrophication and global climate change can affect the dynamics of toxic Microcystis blooms and hence change the MC levels in freshwater.

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          Most cited references 84

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          DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHYLL AND PHEO-PIGMENTS: SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC EQUATIONS1

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            Climate. Blooms like it hot.

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              CO2 concentrating mechanisms in algae: mechanisms, environmental modulation, and evolution.

              The evolution of organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis paralleled a long-term reduction in atmospheric CO2 and the increase in O2. Consequently, the competition between O2 and CO2 for the active sites of RUBISCO became more and more restrictive to the rate of photosynthesis. In coping with this situation, many algae and some higher plants acquired mechanisms that use energy to increase the CO2 concentrations (CO2 concentrating mechanisms, CCMs) in the proximity of RUBISCO. A number of CCM variants are now found among the different groups of algae. Modulating the CCMs may be crucial in the energetic and nutritional budgets of a cell, and a multitude of environmental factors can exert regulatory effects on the expression of the CCM components. We discuss the diversity of CCMs, their evolutionary origins, and the role of the environment in CCM modulation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: External Editor
                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                02 December 2014
                December 2014
                : 6
                : 12
                : 3238-3257
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; E-Mails: yuli514605@ 123456163.com (L.Y.); mzhang@ 123456niglas.ac.cn (M.Z.); zhyang@ 123456niglas.ac.cn (Z.Y.); xlshi@ 123456niglas.ac.cn (X.S.); dmy19890208@ 123456163.com (M.D.)
                [2 ]College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: fxkong@ 123456niglas.ac.cn ; Tel./Fax: +86-25-5771-4759.
                toxins-06-03238
                10.3390/toxins6123238
                4280532
                25474494
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular medicine

                microcystis, microcystin, 16s rdna, mcyd, qpcr, environmental factors, lake chaohu

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