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      Channel Estimation for Diffusive Molecular Communications

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          Abstract

          In molecular communication (MC) systems, the \textit{expected} number of molecules observed at the receiver over time after the instantaneous release of molecules by the transmitter is referred to as the channel impulse response (CIR). Knowledge of the CIR is needed for the design of detection and equalization schemes. In this paper, we present a training-based CIR estimation framework for MC systems which aims at estimating the CIR based on the \textit{observed} number of molecules at the receiver due to emission of a \textit{sequence} of known numbers of molecules by the transmitter. Thereby, we distinguish two scenarios depending on whether or not statistical channel knowledge is available. In particular, we derive maximum likelihood (ML) and least sum of square errors (LSSE) estimators which do not require any knowledge of the channel statistics. For the case, when statistical channel knowledge is available, the corresponding maximum a posteriori (MAP) and linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) estimators are provided. As performance bound, we derive the classical Cramer Rao (CR) lower bound, valid for any unbiased estimator, which does not exploit statistical channel knowledge, and the Bayesian CR lower bound, valid for any unbiased estimator, which exploits statistical channel knowledge. Finally, we propose optimal and suboptimal training sequence designs for the considered MC system. Simulation results confirm the analysis and compare the performance of the proposed estimation techniques with the respective CR lower bounds.

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          A physical end-to-end model for molecular communication in nanonetworks

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            Molecular communication and networking: opportunities and challenges.

            The ability of engineered biological nanomachines to communicate with biological systems at the molecular level is anticipated to enable future applications such as monitoring the condition of a human body, regenerating biological tissues and organs, and interfacing artificial devices with neural systems. From the viewpoint of communication theory and engineering, molecular communication is proposed as a new paradigm for engineered biological nanomachines to communicate with the natural biological nanomachines which form a biological system. Distinct from the current telecommunication paradigm, molecular communication uses molecules as the carriers of information; sender biological nanomachines encode information on molecules and release the molecules in the environment, the molecules then propagate in the environment to receiver biological nanomachines, and the receiver biological nanomachines biochemically react with the molecules to decode information. Current molecular communication research is limited to small-scale networks of several biological nanomachines. Key challenges to bridge the gap between current research and practical applications include developing robust and scalable techniques to create a functional network from a large number of biological nanomachines. Developing networking mechanisms and communication protocols is anticipated to introduce new avenues into integrating engineered and natural biological nanomachines into a single networked system. In this paper, we present the state-of-the-art in the area of molecular communication by discussing its architecture, features, applications, design, engineering, and physical modeling. We then discuss challenges and opportunities in developing networking mechanisms and communication protocols to create a network from a large number of bio-nanomachines for future applications.
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              A Comprehensive Survey of Recent Advancements in Molecular Communication

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2016-08-12
                Article
                1608.03745

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                to be appeared in IEEE Transactions on Communications. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1510.08612
                cs.IT math.IT

                Numerical methods, Information systems & theory

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