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      The Microenvironmental Landscape of Brain Tumors

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      Cancer Cell
      Elsevier BV

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          Neutrophils in cancer: neutral no more.

          Neutrophils are indispensable antagonists of microbial infection and facilitators of wound healing. In the cancer setting, a newfound appreciation for neutrophils has come into view. The traditionally held belief that neutrophils are inert bystanders is being challenged by the recent literature. Emerging evidence indicates that tumours manipulate neutrophils, sometimes early in their differentiation process, to create diverse phenotypic and functional polarization states able to alter tumour behaviour. In this Review, we discuss the involvement of neutrophils in cancer initiation and progression, and their potential as clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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            Regression of Glioblastoma after Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy.

            A patient with recurrent multifocal glioblastoma received chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells targeting the tumor-associated antigen interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13Rα2). Multiple infusions of CAR T cells were administered over 220 days through two intracranial delivery routes - infusions into the resected tumor cavity followed by infusions into the ventricular system. Intracranial infusions of IL13Rα2-targeted CAR T cells were not associated with any toxic effects of grade 3 or higher. After CAR T-cell treatment, regression of all intracranial and spinal tumors was observed, along with corresponding increases in levels of cytokines and immune cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. This clinical response continued for 7.5 months after the initiation of CAR T-cell therapy. (Funded by Gateway for Cancer Research and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02208362 .).
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              Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain.

              The molecular basis for breast cancer metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. Brain relapse typically occurs years after the removal of a breast tumour, suggesting that disseminated cancer cells must acquire specialized functions to take over this organ. Here we show that breast cancer metastasis to the brain involves mediators of extravasation through non-fenestrated capillaries, complemented by specific enhancers of blood-brain barrier crossing and brain colonization. We isolated cells that preferentially infiltrate the brain from patients with advanced disease. Gene expression analysis of these cells and of clinical samples, coupled with functional analysis, identified the cyclooxygenase COX2 (also known as PTGS2), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand HBEGF, and the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC5 as mediators of cancer cell passage through the blood-brain barrier. EGFR ligands and COX2 were previously linked to breast cancer infiltration of the lungs, but not the bones or liver, suggesting a sharing of these mediators in cerebral and pulmonary metastases. In contrast, ST6GALNAC5 specifically mediates brain metastasis. Normally restricted to the brain, the expression of ST6GALNAC5 in breast cancer cells enhances their adhesion to brain endothelial cells and their passage through the blood-brain barrier. This co-option of a brain sialyltransferase highlights the role of cell-surface glycosylation in organ-specific metastatic interactions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer Cell
                Cancer Cell
                Elsevier BV
                15356108
                March 2017
                March 2017
                : 31
                : 3
                : 326-341
                Article
                10.1016/j.ccell.2017.02.009
                5424263
                28292436
                fee86573-f7f0-4dd0-9fcb-a115593a64ee
                © 2017
                History

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