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      Description of nighttime cough epochs in patients with stable COPD GOLD II–IV

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Chronic cough is one of the main symptoms of COPD. Ambulatory objective monitoring provides novel insights into the determinants and characteristics of nighttime cough in COPD.

          Materials and methods

          Nighttime cough was monitored objectively by LEOSound lung sound monitor in patients with stable COPD II–IV. In 30 patients, with 10 patients in each stage group, nighttime cough was analyzed for epoch frequency, epoch severity (epoch length and coughs per epoch), and pattern (productive or nonproductive).

          Results

          Cough was found in all patients ranging from 1 to 294 events over the recording period. In 29 patients, cough epochs were monitored, ranging from 1 to 75 epochs. The highest amount of cough epochs was found in patients with COPD stage III. Active smokers had significantly more productive cough epochs (61%) than nonsmokers (24%).

          Conclusion

          We found a high rate of nighttime cough epochs in patients with COPD, especially in those in stage III. Productive cough was predominantly found in patients with persistent smoking. LEOSound lung sound monitor offers a practical and valuable opportunity to evaluate cough objectively.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Night-time symptoms: a forgotten dimension of COPD.

          Sleep quality is often poor in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these night-time symptoms are frequently unnoticed by physicians and/or not reported by patients themselves. Therefore, the prevalence and clinical impact of sleep disturbances and night-time symptoms in COPD is not well understood and has not been a clinical focus to date. To address this gap, an expert panel meeting was convened in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2011 to discuss the aetiology, evolution, burden, long-term clinical consequences and optimal management of night-time symptoms in COPD. The term "night-time symptoms" in COPD has not been distinctly defined in an objective sense but epidemiological data suggests that the prevalence of nocturnal symptoms and symptomatic sleep disturbance may exceed 75% in patients with COPD. The panel concluded that night-time symptoms in COPD are prevalent and bothersome; that their cause(s) are multiple and include demographic factors, such as age and obesity, pharmacotherapy, disease-specific symptoms and the presence of comorbid sleep disorders, and other medical conditions; and that potential long-term consequences can include lung function changes, increased exacerbation frequency, emergence or worsening of cardiovascular disease, cognitive effects, depression, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. To date, few interventional studies have investigated them, but emerging data suggest that bronchodilator therapy can improve them if deployed appropriately. In summary, night-time symptoms in COPD warrant further clinical investigation with validated tools.
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            Understanding the impact of symptoms on the burden of COPD

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) imposes a substantial burden on individuals with the disease, which can include a range of symptoms (breathlessness, cough, sputum production, wheeze, chest tightness) of varying severities. We present an overview of the biomedical literature describing reported relationships between COPD symptoms and disease burden in terms of quality of life, health status, daily activities, physical activity, sleep, comorbid anxiety, and depression, as well as risk of exacerbations and disease prognosis. In addition, the substantial variability of COPD symptoms encountered (morning, daytime, and nighttime) is addressed and their implications for disease burden considered. The findings from this narrative review, which mainly focuses on real-world and observational studies, demonstrate the impact of COPD symptoms on the burden of disease and that improved recognition and understanding of their impact is central to alleviating this burden.
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              COPD symptoms in the morning: impact, evaluation and management

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms in the morning, including dyspnea and sputum production, affect patients’ quality of life and limit their ability to carry out even simple morning activities. It is now emerging that these symptoms are associated with increased risk of exacerbations and work absenteeism, suggesting that they have a more profound impact on patients than previously thought. The development of validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires to capture patients’ experience of COPD symptoms in the morning is, therefore, vital for establishing effective and comprehensive management strategies. Although it is well established that long-acting bronchodilators are effective in improving COPD symptoms, the limited available data on their impact on morning symptoms and activities have been obtained with non-validated PRO questionnaires. In this review, we discuss the impact of COPD symptoms in the morning and available tools used to evaluate them, and highlight specific gaps that need to be addressed to develop standardized instruments able to meet regulatory requirement. We also present available evidence on the effect of pharmacological therapies on morning symptoms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                03 April 2018
                : 13
                : 1071-1078
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Applied Sciences, Giessen, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Pneumology, Intensive Care and Sleep Medicine, University Hospital of Marburg and Giessen, Marburg, Germany
                [3 ]Clinical Research Department, Thora Tech GmbH, Giessen, Germany
                [4 ]Institute for Medical Informatics, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Volker Gross, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Applied Sciences, Wiesenstrasse 14, D-35390 Giessen, Germany, Tel +49 641 309 6671, Fax +49 641 309 2920, Email volker.gross@ 123456ges.thm.de
                Article
                copd-13-1071
                10.2147/COPD.S154539
                5892620
                © 2018 Fischer et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                cough epochs, cough, lung sound, cough-monitor, nighttime, copd

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