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      Knowing your own heart: distinguishing interoceptive accuracy from interoceptive awareness.

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          Abstract

          Interoception refers to the sensing of internal bodily changes. Interoception interacts with cognition and emotion, making measurement of individual differences in interoceptive ability broadly relevant to neuropsychology. However, inconsistency in how interoception is defined and quantified led to a three-dimensional model. Here, we provide empirical support for dissociation between dimensions of: (1) interoceptive accuracy (performance on objective behavioural tests of heartbeat detection), (2) interoceptive sensibility (self-evaluated assessment of subjective interoception, gauged using interviews/questionnaires) and (3) interoceptive awareness (metacognitive awareness of interoceptive accuracy, e.g. confidence-accuracy correspondence). In a normative sample (N=80), all three dimensions were distinct and dissociable. Interoceptive accuracy was only partly predicted by interoceptive awareness and interoceptive sensibility. Significant correspondence between dimensions emerged only within the sub-group of individuals with greatest interoceptive accuracy. These findings set the context for defining how the relative balance of accuracy, sensibility and awareness dimensions explain cognitive, emotional and clinical associations of interoceptive ability.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Biol Psychol
          Biological psychology
          1873-6246
          0301-0511
          Jan 2015
          : 104
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, UK; Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, UK. Electronic address: s.garfinkel@bsms.ac.uk.
          [2 ] Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, UK; Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, UK.
          [3 ] Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, UK; Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, UK.
          Article
          S0301-0511(14)00229-4
          10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.11.004
          25451381
          ffffc066-22b9-41eb-8c88-ab9237d5b3d1
          Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
          History

          Anxiety,Emotion,Interoception,Metacognition,Perception,Predictive coding

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