857
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares

      If you have found this article useful and you think it is important that researchers across the world have access, please consider donating, to ensure that this valuable collection remains Open Access.

      Islamophobia Studies Journal is published by Pluto Journals, an Open Access publisher. This means that everyone has free and unlimited access to the full-text of all articles from our international collection of social science journalsFurthermore Pluto Journals authors don’t pay article processing charges (APCs).

      scite_
       
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Retraction: Understanding Islamophobia in Asia: The Cases of Myanmar and Malaysia

      Published
      research-article
      Islamophobia Studies Journal
      Pluto Journals
      Malaysia, Islamization, Buddhist extremism, 969 Movement
      Bookmark

            Abstract

            In June 2013, Alvin Tan, a prominent Malaysian blogger, posted on Facebook a picture of his girlfriend and himself eating bak kut teh (pork) with the caption “Selamat Berbuka Puasa” (Happy Breaking Fast). The duo had described the dish as “wangi, enak, menyelerakan” (fragrant, delicious, appetizing) and also included a “Halal” logo. During the same month, Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar faced one of the community's worst persecution acts, with several hundred people murdered by Buddhist religious zealots inspired by extremist Buddhist monks. These are but some examples of Islamophobia in Asia. Buddhist nationalist groups such as the Bodu Bala Sena in Sri Lanka and the 969 Movement in Myanmar have encouraged the anti-Muslim violence. In India, the rise of the Hindu nationalist movement has seen the forced conversion of Muslims and increased incidences of violence against Muslims. Despite this endemic rise of Islamophobia, there has been little academic research conducted on Islamophobia in Asian countries. This is contrasted by the trends of Islamophobia as a phenomenon being well-documented in the West. The rise in terror attacks within Europe, the refugee crisis on the same continent, and the strengthening of the right-wing nationalist parties has resulted in the rise of Islamophobia in Europe and North America. This article seeks to better understand Islamophobia in the Asian context through the case studies of Myanmar and Malaysia. It argues that Islamophobia in these countries is largely the result of domestic socio-economic and political issues, rather than the international narrative against Islam and Muslims. There are three parts to this article: first, the discourse against Islam in both countries will be examined. Second, the factors that caused the rise of Islamophobia in both Myanmar and Malaysia will be looked at. Historical ethnic tensions, economic gaps between different communities, state-initiated religious persecution and the rise of right-wing religious organizations will be discussed in this regard. This section will postulate the view that Islamophobia can occur within countries such as Malaysia, especially when the minority groups are dominant in the economic sphere. The article will conclude by analyzing whether the manifestation and raison d'être of Islamophobia in Asia is different from the West. The outcome of the inquiry will provide useful analytical tools in studying Islamophobia within the Asian context.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Contributors
            Journal
            10.13169
            islastudj
            Islamophobia Studies Journal
            Pluto Journals
            23258381
            2325839X
            Fall 2017
            : 4
            : 1
            : 17-36
            Affiliations
            Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
            Article
            islastudj.4.1.0017
            10.13169/islastudj.4.1.0017
            e0906e65-2cb9-43d3-a944-00a08dd9857d
            © Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project, Center for Race and Gender, University of California, Berkeley

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            History

            Social & Behavioral Sciences
            969 Movement,Islamization,Malaysia,Buddhist extremism

            References

            1. AFP News Agency. 2017. “Bangladesh Pushes on with Rohingya Island Plan.” Al-Jazeera , January 31. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/01/bangladesh-pushes-rohingya-island-plan-170131050223171.html.

            2. Agence France Press. 2013. “Religious ‘Radicals’ Driving Myanmar Unrest: Experts.” The Dailystar. Net , March 31. http://www.thedailystar.net/news/religious-radicals-driving-myanmar-unrest-experts.

            3. 2012. “The Rohingya: Myanmar's outcasts.” Al-Jazeera , January 30. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/01/201212710543198527.html.

            4. 2015. Ethnic Relations in Malaysia: Harmony and Conflict 2nd Edition . Selangor: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre.

            5. , , , , , and . 2011. Fear, Inc.: The Roots of the Islamophobia Network in America . Center for American Progress. August 26. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/religion/reports/2011/08/26/10165/fear-inc/.

            6. Al-Jazeera . 2016. “Refugees Quiz.” http://interactive.aljazeera.com/aje/2016/desperate-journeys-refugees/quiz/index.html.

            7. , and . 2008. “Hegemony without Conversion: Religious Nationalism in Modern Malaysia.” OCIS, Global Change, Peace and Security 1–34.

            8. , and , eds. 2015. European Islamophobia Report 2015 . SETA: Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research. http://www.islamophobiaeurope.com/reports/2015/en/EIR_2015.pdf.

            9. 2015. “Islamophobia and the Three Evils of Society.” Islamophobia Studies Journal 3 (1): 158–66.

            10. BBC News . 2013. “Burmese Leader Defends ‘Anti Muslim’ Monk Ashin Wirathu.” June 24. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-23027492.

            11. BBC News . 2017. “Myanmar Says ‘No Evidence’ of Rohingya Genocide.” January 4. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-38505228.

            12. 2014. Religious Nationalism: Myanmar and the Role of Buddhism in Anti-Muslim Narratives . Sweden: Lund University.

            13. 2015. “Saving Muslim Women: A Feminist-Postcolonial Critique of Veiling Legislation in Norway.” Islamophobia Studies Journal 3 (1): 78–89.

            14. . 2011. “Towards a Definition of Islamophobia: Approximations of the Early Twentieth Century.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 34 (4): 556–73.

            15. , and . 2015. “The Rohingya and Islamic Extremism: A Convenient Myth.” Institute for Security and Development Policy, Policy Brief, 181. http://isdp.eu/publication/rohingya-islamic-extremism-convenient-myth-2/.

            16. Centre for International Development and Conflict Management. 2007. “Chronogoloy for Rohingya in Burma.” http://www.mar.umd.edu/chronology.asp?groupId=77501.

            17. 2015. “The Way They Treat Their Daughters and Wives: Racialisation of Muslims in Norway.” Islamophobia Studies Journal 3 (1): 62–77.

            18. 2011. “Burmese Indians in contemporary Burma: Heritage, Influence, and Perceptions since 1988.” Asian Ethnicity 12 (1): 33–54.

            19. 2013. “India's Vanishing ‘Burma Colonies.’ Repatriation, Urban Citizenship, and (De) Mobilization of Indian Returnees from Burma (Myanmar) since the 1960s.” Moussons. Recherche en sciences humaines sur l'Asie du Sud-Est 22:11–34.

            20. 2015. “The Burmese Indians Who Never Went Home.” BBC News , September 4. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33973982.

            21. , and 2013. “Myanmar Buddhist Committee Bans Anti-Muslim Organizations.” Reuters , August 26. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-buddhism-idUSBRE98A0EP20130911.

            22. Free Malaysia Today . 2015. “DPM: Bumis Not Racists, Only Claiming Their Rights.” June 17. http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2015/06/17/dpm-bumis-not-racists-only-claiming-their-rights/.

            23. Free Malaysia Today . 2016. “Halal, Non-Halal Trolley Segregation under Consideration.” January 19. http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2016/01/19/halal-non-halal-trolley-segregation-under-consideration/.

            24. 1956. Colonial Policy and Practice: A Comparative Study of Burma and Netherlands India . New York: New York University Press.

            25. 2015. “Myanmar Authorities Step Up Collection of Temporary Identification Cards.” Radio Free Asia , April 6. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/myanmar/authorities-step-up-collection-of-white-cards-04062015152750.html.

            26. 2017. “Concern in Malaysia Rohingya Could Fall Prey to IS Extremists.” Channel News Asia , January 30. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/concern-in-malaysia-rohingya-could-fall-prey-to-is-extremists/3477110.html.

            27. , and , eds. 2013. The New Economic Policy in Malaysia: Affirmative Action, Ethnic Inequalities and Social Justice . Singapore: NUS Press Singapore.

            28. , , and . 2015. Countdown to Annihilation: Genocide in Myanmar . London: International State Crime Initiative. http://statecrime.org/data/2015/10/ISCI-Rohingya-Report-PUBLISHED-VERSION.pdf.

            29. 2015. The Fear of Islam: An Introduction to Islamophobia in the West . Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Publishers.

            30. . 2012. “The Multiple Faces of Islamophobia.” Islamophobia Studies Journal 1 (1): 9–33.

            31. 2015. “Multicultural Society in Burma: How It Failed to Accommodate the Rohingya Identity.” Journal of Language and Culture 32 (2): 1–26.

            32. 1898. The Soul of a People . 2nd ed. London: Macmillan.

            33. 2001. The Politics of Multiculturalism: Pluralism and Citizenship in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia . Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

            34. , and 2014. “The Socio-political Context of Islamophobic Prejudices.” Islamophobia Studies Journal 2 (2): 143–56.

            35. Human Rights Watch . 2000. “Discrimination in Arakan.” https://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/burma/burm005-02.htm.

            36. 2016. The Rohingyas: Inside Myanmar's Hidden Gencoide . London: C. Hurst. ILO. 1982. “Burma Citizenship Law.” www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87413/99608/…/MMR87413.pdf.

            37. 2014. “Reading Power: Muslims in the War on Terror Discourse.” Islamophobia Studies Journal 2 (2): 29–42.

            38. 2004. “The New Economic Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia.” United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 7. http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/httpNetITFramePDF?ReadForm&parentunid=A20E9AD6E5BA919780256B6D0057896B&parentdoctype=paper&netitpath=80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpAuxPages)/A20E9AD6E5BA919780256B6D0057896B/$file/jomo.pdf.

            39. 2011. Rohingya Muslims: Myanmar's Forgotten People . Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

            40. . 2015. “Women's Dress Code Debate Takes Centre Stage.” Malaysiakini , November 25. http://www.malaysiakini.com/news/321070.

            41. 2014. The Muslims Are Coming!: Islamophobia, Extremism, and the Domestic War on Terror . London: Verso Books.

            42. , , , , , and 2000. A Vision and a Strategy: Economic Development of Burma . Singapore: Singapore University Press.

            43. 2012. The Islamophobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims . New York: Pluto Press.

            44. , ed. 2014. Misplaced Democracy . Kuala Lumpur: SIRD.

            45. , , , and 2015. “Persecution of the Rohingya Muslims: Is Genocide Occurring in Myanmar's Rakhine State? A Legal Analysis.” Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic, Yale Law School, Fortify Rights. http://www.fortifyrights.org/downloads/Yale_Persecution_of_the_Rohingya_October_2015.pdf.

            46. 2015. “L'Exception Française: From Irrational Fear of Muslims to Their Social Death Sentence.” Islamophobia Studies Journal 3 (1): 90–105.

            47. . 2015. “Former White-Card Holders Cut from Rakhine Voter Lists.” Myanmar Times , June 24. http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/national-news/15191-former-white-card-holders-cut-from-rakhine-voter-lists.html.

            48. 2015. “Muslims in Canada: Collective Identities, Attitudes of Otherment and Canadian Muslim Perspectives on Radicalism.” Islamophobia Studies Journal 3 (1):44–61.

            49. Malaymail Online . 2015. “Clarify and Apologise, Umno Youth Man Tells China after Envoy's Chinatown Speech.” September 26. http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/clarify-and-apologise-umno-youth-man-tells-china-after-envoys-chinatown-spe.

            50. 1959. Burma's Constitution . The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

            51. , and . 2009. “The Multicultural State We're In: Muslims, ‘Multiculture’ and the ‘Civic Re-balancing’ of British Multiculturalism.” Political Studies 57: 473–97.

            52. 1990. Islam and Ethnicity in Malay Politics . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

            53. 1984. Reflowering of Malaysian Islam: Modern Religious Radicals and Their Roots . Canada: University of British Columbia Press.

            54. 2013. The Rohingya Issue: A Thorny Obstacle between Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh . Online Burma Library. @123456http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Kei_Nemoto-Rohingya.pdf.

            55. 2016. “Myanmar's Rohingyas: Power Struggle, Buddhist Assertion & Ethnic Divide.” International Strategic and Security Studies Programme Reflections No. 42. May 31. @123456http://isssp.in/myanmars-rohingyas-power-struggle-buddhist-assertion-ethnic-divide/.

            56. . 2016. “Islamophobia in Buddhist Myanmar: The 969 Movement and Anti-Muslim Violence.” In Islam and the State in Myanmar: Muslim-Buddhist Relations and the Politics of Belonging , edited by , 183–210. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

            57. 2017. “Geert Wilders: Far-right Dutch PM Frontrunner Says ‘Islam and Freedom Are not Compatible’.” Independent , February 22. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/geert-wilders-dutch-pm-frontrunner-far-right-islamophobic-freedom-a7593466.html.

            58. 2016. Prominent Buddhist Monk Fans Anti-Muslim Sentiment in Thailand.” Channel NewsAsia , February 8. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/prominent-buddhist-monk-fans-anti-muslim-sentiment-in-thailand-8170856.

            59. 2005. “Islam and the Cultural Politics of Legitimacy: Malaysia in the Aftermath of September 11.” In Remaking Muslim Politics Pluralism, Contestation, Democratization , edited by , 240–72. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

            60. . 2016. “Malaysia Racial Discrimination Report 2015.” March 21. http://komas.org/v2/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Malaysia-Racial-Discrimination-Report-2015.pdf.

            61. 2015. “Ethno-Political Conflict: The Rohingya Vulnerability in Myanmar.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Studies 2 (1): 288–95.

            62. 2015. “Annuar Musa: I Was Showing Love for My Race, Not Racism.” Malaysiakini , September 23. http://www.malaysiakini.com/news/313316.

            63. 1978. Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient . New York: Pantheon Books.

            64. 2014. “The US Islamophobia Network: Its Funding and Impact.” Islamophobia Studies Journal 2 (1): 99–118.

            65. 2014. Recalling the Caliphate: Decolonisation and World Order . London: C. Hurst.

            66. 2006. Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny . New York: Norton.

            67. 2015. “Letter from America: Playing Politics with the White Cards?” Asian Tribune , April 12. http://asiantribune.com/node/86746.

            68. SimilarWeb . 2017. “Traffic Overview.” https://www.similarweb.com/website/breitbart.com.

            69. 2013. Myanmar's Rohingyas: Challenges Confronting a Persecuted Minority and Implications for National and Regional Security . Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

            70. 1991. National Identity . Nevada: University of Nevada Press.

            71. “Religion and Politics in Burma” (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965).

            72. 2016. “Burmese Troops Are ‘Squarely Responsible’ for Torching Rohingya Muslim Villages: Rights Group.” Time , December 13. http://time.com/4598732/burma-army-rohingya-arakan-hrw/.

            73. 1982. Buddhism and Society: A Great Tradition and Its Burmese Vicissitudes . 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press.

            74. 2004. The New Economic Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia . United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Geneva: Switzerland.

            75. . 2013. “Special Report: Buddhist Monks Incite Muslim Killings in Myanmar.” Reuters , April 8. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/04/08/us-myanmar-violence-specialreport-idUSBRE9370AP20130408.

            76. 2008. “Poll Shows Most Malaysians Want NEP to End.” Malaysia Today , October 9. http://www.malaysia-today.net/poll-shows-most-malaysians-want-nep-to-end/.

            77. The Diplomat . 2013. “The Mad Monks of Myanmar.” June 9. http://thediplomat.com/2013/07/the-mad-monks-of-myanmar/.

            78. The Economist. 2013. “A Never Ending Policy.” April 27. http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21576654-elections-may-could-mark-turning-point-never-ending-policy.

            79. The European Rohingya Council. 2015. “ERC Condemns the Decision of Myanmar Election Commission to Bar Rohingya MP from Reelection.” The Stateless.com, August 25. http://www.thestateless.com/2015/08/25/erc-condemns-the-decision-of-myanmar-election-commission-to-bar-rohingya-mp-from-reelection/.

            80. The Malaysian Insider . 2015. “Baling MP Ordered to Retract ‘Baliktongsan’ Remark.” November 4. http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2015/11/04/abdul-azees-baling-retract-remark-pandikar/.

            81. The Rakyat Post . 2015. “Deputy Minister ‘Threatens to Slap’ Chinese Who Complain outside Malaysia.” October 1. http://www.therakyatpost.com/news/2015/10/01/deputy-minister-threatens-to-slap-chinese-who-complain-outside-malaysia/.

            82. . 2013. “Buddhist Monk Wirathu Leads Violent National Campaign against Myanmar's Muslims.” Global Post , June 21. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatches/globalpost-blogs/groundtruth-burma/buddhist-monk-wirathu-969-muslims-myanmar.

            83. 2017. “Marine Le Pen Is Donald Trump without the Crazy.” Foreign Policy , February 16. http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/02/16/marine-le-pen-is-donald-trump-without-the-crazy-front-national/.

            84. , and . 2014. Contesting Buddhist Narratives: Democratization, Nationalism, and Communal Violence in Myanmar . Singapore: East-West Center.

            85. 1972. The Muslim of Burma: A Study of Minority Group . Germany: Otto Harrassowitz Wiesbaden.

            86. 2004. “Globalization and National Identity: Managing Ethnicity and Cultural Pluralism in Malaysia.” In Growth and Governance in Asia , edited by , 115–36. Honolulu: Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies.

            Comments

            Comment on this article