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      Reading History into Law: Who Is Worthy of Reparations? Observations on Spain and Portugal's Return Laws and the Implications for Reparations

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            Abstract

            In 2015, both Portugal and Spain passed similar laws offering Sephardic Jews their respective citizenships to redress the historic wrong of their persecution and expulsion under the Inquisition. Portugal and Spain are now the only other countries in the world to have a return law for the Jewish people, in addition to Israel—albeit limited to Sephardic Jews. Given the underlying reasons for the passing of this law, it is notable that Iberian Muslims, who were also expelled, have no recourse for redress—not even symbolically. While remedies can be limited under international law, this article explores the relationship between the historical narrative of the Arab/Muslim occupiers, the current popular portrayal of Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, and the relationship between the absence of reparations and current discrimination against groups.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Contributors
            Journal
            10.13169
            islastudj
            Islamophobia Studies Journal
            Pluto Journals
            23258381
            2325839X
            Fall 2017
            : 4
            : 1
            : 115-128
            Affiliations
            School of Oriental and African Studies, UK
            Article
            islastudj.4.1.0115
            10.13169/islastudj.4.1.0115
            47fecaff-636e-4cf0-a0fa-a2095dff49eb
            © Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project, Center for Race and Gender, University of California, Berkeley

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            History

            Social & Behavioral Sciences
            Moors,inquisition,reparations,historic injustice,Islamophobia and Anti-Semitism

            Endnotes

            1. , “Jamaica Should ‘Move on from Painful Legacy of Slavery’, Says Cameron,” The Guardian , September 30, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/30/jamaica-should-move-on-from-painful-legacy-of-slavery-says-cameron.

            2. , The Moors in Spain and Portugal (London: Faber, 1974).

            3. Ibid.

            4. , The Jews of Spain: A History of the Sephardic Experience (New York and London: Free Press, 1994).

            5. Ibid.

            6. , Medieval Mediterranean, Volume 69: Persecution of the Jews and Muslims of Portugal: King Manuel I and the End of Religious Tolerance (1496–7) (Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2007).

            7. , The Moors in Spain and Portugal .

            8. Ibid.

            9. , Medieval Mediterranean , Volume 69.

            10. , The Sephardic Jews of Spain and Portugal: Survival of an Imperiled Culture in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (Jefferson: McFarland, 2009).

            11. , The Jews of Spain .

            12. , Medieval Mediterranean , Volume 69.

            13. Ibid.

            14. , The Moors in Spain and Portugal (London: Faber, 1974).

            15. , The Moors in Spain and Portugal .

            16. Jerusalem Post , “Portugal Okays Law of Return for Sephardic Jews - Diaspora - Jerusalem Post,” January 29, 2015, accessed September 13, 2015, http://www.jpost.com/Diaspora/Portugal-okays-law-of-return-for-Sephardic-Jews-389431.

            17. Portuguese Ministry of Justice, Decree-law n.° 30-A/2015, February 27, 2015.

            18. JTA, “Spain's Lower House Passes Law of Return for Sephardi Jews,” Haaretz , June 11, 2015, http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/jewish-world-news/1.660777.

            19. , “Spain Passes Law of Return for Sephardic Jews,” Jerusalem Post , June 11, 2015, http://www.jpost.com/Diaspora/Spain-passes-law-of-return-for-Sephardic-Jews-405742.

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            22. AFP, “Spain Passes Law Awarding Citizenship to Descendants of Expelled Jews,” The Guardian , June 11, 2015, sec. World news, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/11/spain-law-citizenship-jews.

            23. Article 35, International Law Commission, Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, text adopted by the Commission at its fifty-third session, 2001.

            24. , “Damage and Redress in the Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (1979–2001),” in Reparations: Redressing Past Wrongs, Human Rights in Development Yearbook (The Hague, London, and Oslo: Kluwer Law International, 2003), 213.

            25. UN General Assembly, Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly, 21 March 2006, A/RES/60/147

            26. , “Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, MP—Apology to Australia's Indigenous Peoples,” Parliament of Australia , accessed May 7, 2017, http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/our-people/apology-to-australias-indigenous-peoples.

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            29. , “Holocaust Reparations Litigation: Lessons for the Slavery Reparations Movement,” New York University Annual Survey of American Law 58 (2001–2003): 615.

            30. , “Restitution of Property and Refugee Rehabilitation: Two Case Studies,” Journal of Refugee Studies 6, no. 1 (January 1, 1993): 56–64.

            31. , “If Spain Welcomes Back Its Jews, Will Its Muslims Be Next?,” The Guardian , February 24, 2014, sec. World news, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/24/spain-sephardic-jews-islam-muslim.

            32. Portuguese Ministry of Justice, Decree-law n.° 30-A/2015, February 27, 2015.

            33. , “If Spain Welcomes Back Its Jews, Will Its Muslims Be Next?”

            34. JTA, “Spain's Lower House Passes Law of Return for Sephardi Jews.”

            35. , “Expulsion as an Issue of World History,” Journal of World History 9, no. 2 (1996): 165–80.

            36. , “Deportation, Expulsion, and the International Police of Aliens,” Citizenship Studies 6, no. 3 (September 1, 2002): 265–92.

            37. Ibid.

            38. , “If Spain Welcomes Back Its Jews, Will Its Muslims Be Next?”

            39. World Bank, “Spain Data,” accessed May 9, 2017, http://data.worldbank.org/country/spain; World Bank, “Portugal Data,” accessed May 9, 2017, http://data.worldbank.org/country/portugal.

            40. “Portugal Approves Citizenship Plan for Sephardic Jews,” The Huffington Post , accessed September 18, 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/01/31/portugal-sephardic-jews-citizenship_n_6579930.html.

            41. JTA, “Spain's Lower House Passes Law of Return for Sephardi Jews.”

            42. , “If Spain Welcomes Back Its Jews, Will Its Muslims Be Next?”

            43. Ibid.

            44. , State Responsibility, System of the Law of Nations (Oxford: Clarendon, 1983).

            45. , “Moving On: Iberia's New Muslims,” World Policy Institute , Beyond Borders, 30, no. 1 (Spring 2013), http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/spring2013/moving-iberias-new-muslims.

            46. , “Faith, Culture and Fear: Comparing Islamophobia in Early Modern Spain and Twenty-First-Century Europe,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 36, no. 3 (March 1, 2013): 399.

            47. and , “European Islamophobia Report 2016” (Istanbul: SETA, 2016), 547.

            48. , “Faith, Culture and Fear,” 10.

            49. Ibid., 413.

            50. Ibid., 402–406.

            51. , “Moving On: Iberia's New Muslims.”

            52. , “Rhetorical Conflicts: Civilizational Discourse and the Contested Patrimonies of Spain's Festivals of Moors and Christians,” Religions 5, no. 1 (2014): 133.

            53. Ibid.

            54. , “National Museums in Spain: A History of Crown, Church and People,” in Building National Museums in Europe 1750–2010 , vol. 1 (European National Museums: Identity Politics, the Uses of the Past and the European Citizen, Bologna: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011), 865.

            55. , The Routledge International Handbook of Critical Education , trans. (Routledge, 2011), 77.

            56. The Estatutos de Limpieza de Sangre, which was used until 1834

            57. , Religion and Education in Europe (Munster: Waxmann Verlag, 2007), 105.

            58. and , “European Islamophobia Report 2016,” 499.

            59. , “No Bad News from the European Margin: The New Islamic Presence in Portugal,” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 12, no. 1 (January 1, 2001): 77, doi:10.1080/09596410123506.

            60. Ibid., 74.

            61. and , “European Islamophobia Report 2016,” 449.

            62. Ibid., 451.

            63. , “No Bad News from the European Margin,” 83.

            64. , “Muslims as Seen by the Portuguese Press 1974–1999: Changes in the Perception of Islam,” in Intercultural Relations and Religious Authorities: Muslims in the European Union , vol. 2, ed. and (Leauven: Peeters, 2002), 13, 20; and , “European Islamophobia Report 2016,” 447.

            65. and , “European Islamophobia Report 2016,” 453.

            66. Interview with Ziyaad Lunat, conducted online, April 4, 2017.

            67. Ibid.

            68. , “No Bad News from the European Margin,” 83.

            69. and , “European Islamophobia Report 2016,” 457.

            70. , “What Are the Humanities?” Journal of Higher Education 17, no. 6 (1946): 302.

            71. , “Reparations for Slavery: A Dream Deferred Comment,” San Diego International Law Journal 3 (2002): 183.

            72. , “The Rise of the Reparations Movement,” Radical History Review 87, no. 1 (2003): 9.

            73. , The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), 8.

            74. Ibid., 8–9.

            75. and , A History of the Holocaust (New York: Franklin Watts, 1982), 46–47.

            76. , “No Roads Lead to Rom: The Fate of the Romani People under the Nazis and in Post-war Restitution,” Whittier Law Review 20 (1998): 514.

            77. Ibid., 515.

            78. Ibid., 517.

            79. , “Mussolini's Concentration Camps for Civilians. An Insight into the Nature of Fascist Racism,” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 17, no. 2 (March 1, 2012): 244, doi:10.1080/13545 71X.2012.641423.

            80. , “Gypsy Girls' Corpses on Beach in Italy Fail to Put Off Sunbathers,” The Guardian , July 21, 2008, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/jul/21/italy.race.

            81. , “The World Was Shocked by Italian Sunbathers Ignoring Dead Gipsy Girls…But Now Italy Is Showing a Chilling Interest in Roma Children,” Mail Online , July 25, 2008, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1038747/The-world-shocked-Italian-sunbathers-ignoring-dead-gipsy-girls–But-Italy-showing-chilling-Roma-children.html.

            82. In Germany, for example, there still are antisemitic attacks that occur, but because of the history of the Nazis, making overt antisemitic statements is seen as taboo. and , “‘Anthropologists Are Talking’ About Islamophobia and Anti-Semitism in the New Europe,” Ethnos 75, no. 2 (June 1, 2010): 213–28; and , “Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia—New Enemies, Old Patterns,” Race & Class 52, no. 3 (January 1, 2011): 79–80.

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