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      • Record: found
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      Is Open Access

      Safer “5–key” number entry user interfaces using Differential Formal Analysis

      , , , ,

      The 26th BCS Conference on Human Computer Interaction (HCI)

      Human Computer Interaction

      12 - 14 September 2012

      Number entry, stochastic simulation, medical devices, interactive systems, blocking errors

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Differential formal analysis is a new user interface analytic evaluation method based on stochastic user simulation. The method is particularly valuable for evaluating safety critical user interfaces, which often have subtle programming issues. The approach starts with the identification of operational design features that define the design space to be explored. Two or more analysts are required to analyse all combinations of design features by simulating keystroke sequences containing keying slip errors. Each simulation produces numerical values that rank the design combinations on the basis of their sensitivity to keying slip errors. A systematic discussion of the simulation results is performed for assessing the causes of any discrepancy, either in numerical values or rankings. The process is iterated until outcomes are agreed upon. In short, the approach combines rigorous simulation of user slip errors with diversity in modelling and analysis methods.

          Although the method can be applied to other types of user interface, it is demonstrated through a case study of 5-key number entry systems, which are a common safety critical user interface style found in many medical infusion pumps and elsewhere. The results uncover critical design issues, and are an important contribution of this paper since the results provide device manufacturers guidelines to update their device firmware to make their devices safer.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Programming errors contribute to death from patient-controlled analgesia: case report and estimate of probability.

          To identify the factors that threaten patient safety when using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and to obtain an evidence-based estimate of the probability of death from user programming errors associated with PCA. A 19-yr-old woman underwent Cesarean section and delivered a healthy infant. Postoperatively, morphine sulfate (2 mg bolus, lockout interval of six minutes, four-hour limit of 30 mg) was ordered, to be delivered by an Abbott Lifecare 4100 Plus II Infusion Pump. A drug cassette containing 1 mg.mL(-1) solution of morphine was unavailable, so the nurse used a cassette that contained a more concentrated solution (5 mg.mL(-1)). 7.5 hr after the PCA was started, the patient was pronounced dead. Blood samples were obtained and autopsy showed a toxic concentration of morphine. The available evidence is consistent with a concentration programming error where morphine 1 mg.mL(-1) was entered instead of 5 mg.mL(-1). Based on a search of such incidents in the Food and Drug Administration MDR database and other sources and on a denominator of 22,000,000 provided by the device manufacturer, mortality from user programming errors with this device was estimated to be a low likelihood event (ranging from 1 in 33,000 to 1 in 338,800), but relatively numerous in absolute terms (ranging from 65-667 deaths). Anesthesiologists, nurses, human factors engineers, and device manufacturers can work together to enhance the safety of PCA pumps by redesigning user interfaces, drug cassettes, and hospital operating procedures to minimize programming errors and to enhance their detection before patients are harmed.
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            Prescribing errors in hospital inpatients: their incidence and clinical significance

             B Dean (2002)
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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Reducing number entry errors: solving a widespread, serious problem

              Number entry is ubiquitous: it is required in many fields including science, healthcare, education, government, mathematics and finance. People entering numbers are to be expected to make errors, but shockingly few systems make any effort to detect, block or otherwise manage errors. Worse, errors may be ignored but processed in arbitrary ways, with unintended results. A standard class of error (defined in the paper) is an ‘out by 10 error’, which is easily made by miskeying a decimal point or a zero. In safety-critical domains, such as drug delivery, out by 10 errors generally have adverse consequences. Here, we expose the extent of the problem of numeric errors in a very wide range of systems. An analysis of better error management is presented: under reasonable assumptions, we show that the probability of out by 10 errors can be halved by better user interface design. We provide a demonstration user interface to show that the approach is practical. To kill an error is as good a service as, and sometimes even better than, the establishing of a new truth or fact. (Charles Darwin 1879 [2008], p. 229)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Conference
                September 2012
                September 2012
                : 29-38
                Affiliations
                Future Interaction Technology Lab

                Swansea University
                School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science

                Queen Mary University of London
                Article
                10.14236/ewic/HCI2012.8
                © Abigail Cauchi et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. The 26th BCS Conference on Human Computer Interaction, Birmingham, UK

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                The 26th BCS Conference on Human Computer Interaction
                HCI
                26
                Birmingham, UK
                12 - 14 September 2012
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                Human Computer Interaction
                Product
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
                Categories
                Electronic Workshops in Computing

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