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      A Heterogeneous Traffic Virtual-Reality Simulator to Study Irritation/Anger and Driving Behavior under Adverse Conditions


      Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI)

      Human Computer Interaction Conference

      4 - 6 July 2018

      Virtual Reality, heterogeneous traffic, lane, slow moving vehicles, stereophonic sound, simulation

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          To analyse driver’s behaviour in heterogeneous chaotic traffic, simulators are important as experimentation in real traffic is dangerous. Simulators using Virtual Reality HMD provide a 360-degree view enabling almost realistic experience. In our research, we focus on studying the driver’s response when forced to follow a slow-moving vehicle with or without lane regulation. We collected self-reports of emotions - anger/frustration. Set as a first-person view through the windshield, a player controls the virtual car in simulated (game engine Unity3D) traffic with a steering wheel fitted with hand operated acceleration and brake hardware controls. Road scenarios similar to a typical Indian condition are replicated and each individual vehicle type is implemented as Artificial Intelligent (AI) bot. These bots interact with the player forcing her/him to react to the emergent situations. The player’s goal is to overtake a very slow-moving vehicle ahead blocking the traffic and the scenarios presented were: a) no-lanes, b) lane change possible only at certain stretches of the road and c) lanes demarcated by solid barricades. Traffic sounds were added for natural effect. Participants with and without real-life driving experience were recruited. The time to reach the finish line was the least in the no-lane condition and the driver was able to manoeuvre through the gaps between vehicles. Designated lane-change stretches required quick responses and speed-prediction skills, in the absence of which collisions were observed and also time to finish was longer. Though lane marking and discipline is promoted for safety, in heterogeneous traffic with vehicles of varying engine capacity, strict lane adherence could lead to massive traffic jams and driver frustration/road rage.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Simulator sickness during driving simulation studies.

          While driving simulators are a valuable tool for assessing multiple dimensions of driving performance under relatively safe conditions, researchers and practitioners must be prepared for participants that suffer from simulator sickness. This paper describes multiple theories of motion sickness and presents a method for assessing and reacting to simulator sickness symptoms. Results showed that this method identified individuals who were unable to complete a driving simulator study due to simulator sickness with greater than 90% accuracy and that older participants had a greater likelihood of simulator sickness than younger participants. Possible explanations for increased symptoms experienced by older participants are discussed as well as implications for research ethics and simulator sickness prevention. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Comparison of driving errors between on-the-road and simulated driving assessment: a validation study.

            Driving simulation provides a convenient and safe method for assessing driving behaviors. Many authors, however, agree that validation is a key component of any study that utilizes simulators to assess driving performance. The purpose of this study was to test driver response validity by discerning whether behavioral responses of drivers, as expressed by type and number of errors, are similar on the road and in the simulator. We replicated real-world intersections in our driving simulator (STISIM M500W; Systems Technology Inc.) and assessed the number and type of driving errors committed by the same 39 participants while negotiating a right and a left turn both on the road and in the simulator. We found no significant interactions between the type of vehicle (road vs. simulator) and the type of turn (right versus left) for any of the driving errors, indicating that the same trends exist between driving errors made on the road and in the simulator and thus suggesting relative validity of the simulator. We also found no significant differences between the road and the simulator for lane maintenance, adjustment to stimuli, and visual scanning errors, indicating absolute validity for these types of errors. The findings suggest early support for external validity for our driving simulator, indicating that the results of assessing driving errors when negotiating turns in the simulator can be generalized or transferred to the road under the same testing conditions. A follow-up study with larger sample size is needed to establish whether driving performance in the simulator is predictive of driving performance on the road.
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              A validation study of driving errors using a driving simulator


                Author and article information

                July 2018
                July 2018
                : 1-5
                IIIT Hyderabad
                © Agrawal et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. Proceedings of British HCI 2018. Belfast, UK.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit

                Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference
                Belfast, UK
                4 - 6 July 2018
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                Human Computer Interaction Conference
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page):
                Electronic Workshops in Computing


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