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      Headache Associated with Chiari Malformation Type One

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            Patients with chiari malformation type one ( CM -1 ) headache may be mistaken by chronic migraines or other causes of headache, so analysis of headache related to CM-1 is corner stone in early diagnosis of the disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and clinical characteristics of headache in the patients with CM-1 to help primary care clinicians better understand the relationship between an individual's presenting symptoms of CM 1, so aiding for early diagnosis and early management and for better outcome. This was prospective observational analytical study carried out in Khartoum state hospitals that provide neurosurgical services, (NCNS, Neurospine Center-Ribat Teaching Hospital, Military Hospital, and Omdurman Teaching Hospital) from February 2018- September 2019. Study was included 18 adult males and females of different ages diagnosed with Chiari MF -1 who undergoing decompressive surgery. Symptomatic patients diagnosed with Chiari MF -1Patients with no history of neurological illnesses or history of cranial surgery were included. Patients with history of any neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and with other causes of headache were excluded from the study. Evaluation and full analysis of headache were registered including type of headache, site, duration headache, time lasting, radiation of pain, severity using headache scale, associated ocular and visual symptoms. This study included 18 patients diagnosed with chiari 1 malformation and suffering from headache related to chiari 1 malformation. Full analysis of the headache was obtained. The headache was mostly in the back of the head (n=17/18 , 94.4%) and only in (n=1/18, 5.6%), the headache was in the sides or front of the head. In 12 patients (n=12/18 , 66.7%) headache worsen by bending forward. And in 6 patients (n=6/18 , 33.3%) worsen by cough. Regarding the type of headache, mostly pressure in nature (n=17/18 , 94.4%) and it was rarely throbbing in nature(n=1/18, 5.6%),. All patients were asked to evaluate their headache in headache scale from 1 to 10 (10 more severe). The scale ranged between 5 and 9 with mean 6.88. headache could be long or short lasting (from hours to days).Eye symptoms included blurring of vision complained by 9 patients(n=9/18, 50%), light sensitivity in 5 patients ((n=5/18, 27.8%), and 6 patients (n=6/18 , 33.3%) there were no eye symptoms. Neck pain was a dominant symptom seen in 17 patients (n=17/18, 94.4%) , and back pain in 18 patients (n=18/18 , 100%) . headache subsided after decompression surgery in all patients included in this study. Knowledge and understanding the CM-1 headache characters are important for early diagnosis and early treatment of the disease.


            Author and article information

            AfricArXiv Preprints
            30 March 2020
            [1 ] associate professor-faculty of medicine-the national ribat university
            [2 ] Neurosurgery Department National Ribat University teaching hospital
            [3 ] Neurosurgery Department National Ribat University
            Author information

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

            : 30 March 2020
            : 4 April 2020

            The data that support the findings of this study are available from ribat.edu.sd but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of ribat.edu.sd.
            Chiari malformation , CM-1, Headache, occipital headache, neck pain


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