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      COURTING AND CONTAINING THE ARAB STREET: ARAB PUBLIC OPINION, THE MIDDLE EAST AND U.S. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

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      Arab Studies Quarterly
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            Journal
            arabstudquar
            10.2307/j50005550
            Arab Studies Quarterly
            Pluto Journals
            02713519
            1 April 2008
            : 30
            : 2
            : 45-64
            Article
            10.2307/41858543
            68b2c48c-2d6b-4499-ac5b-3adef8e3da61

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.


            Social & Behavioral Sciences

            ENDNOTES

            1. Mohammed El Oifi, "Influence without Power: Al Jazeera and the Arab Public Sphere," in Mohamed Zayani (ed.) The Al Jazeera Phenomenon: Critical Perspectives on New Arab Media (London: Pluto Press, 2005), p. 74.

            2. John Kifner, "The New Power of Arab Public Opinion," The New York Times (11 November 2001).

            3. Gordon Robison, "Whither the Arab Street?", USC Center on Public Diplomacy's Middle East Project (August 2005), <http://www.uscpublicdiplomacy.com/pdfs/Robison_Whither_the_Arab_Street_ Aug23.pdf>.

            4. Wahid Abdel Meguid, "The Abused Arab Street," Al Hayat (6 November 2002), <http://www.worldpress.org/print_article.cfm?article_id=922&dont=yes>.

            5. Laura M. James, "Whose Voice? Nasser, the Arabs and 'Sawt al- Arab' Radio", Transnational Broadcasting Studies 16 (2002), <http://www.tbsjournal.com/James.html>. Mamoun Fandy, (Un)Civil War of Words: Media and Politics in the Arab World (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2007), pp. 40-42.

            6. Youssef M. Choueiri, Arab Nationalism: A History (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000), pp. 205-06.

            7. James L. Gelvin, The Modern Middle East: A History (New York: Oxford UP, 2005), p. 290.

            8. Roy R. Andersen, Robert F. Seibert, and Jon G. Wagner, Politics and Change in the Middle East: Sources of Conflict and Accommodation (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007), p. 147.

            9. Fandy, (Un)Civil War of Words, p. 43.

            10. William L. Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East (Boulder: Westview, 2004), pp. 428-30.

            11. Karen A. Feste, The Iranian Revolution and Political Change in the Arab World (Abu Dhabi: ECSSR, 1996), pp. 12-13.

            12. El Oifi, "Influence without Power", p. 74.

            13. Dale F. Eickelman and Armando Salvatore, "The Public Sphere and Muslim Identities," European Journal of Sociology 43 (2002), p. 92.

            14. David Pollock, The Arab Street? Public Opinion in the Arab World (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Institute for Near Eastern Policy, 1992), p. 12.

            15. Augustus Richard Norton, "The New Media, Civic Pluralism, and the Struggle for Political Reform", in Dale F. Eickelman and Jon Anderson (eds), New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003), p. 20.

            16. George J. Tenet, "Worldwide Threat 2001: National Security in a Changing World", Testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (7 February 2001), <https://www.cia.gov/news- information/speeches-testimony/2001/UNCLASWWT_02072001.html>.

            17. David Hoffman, "Beyond Public Diplomacy: Weapons of Mass Communications", Foreign Affairs 81.2 (2002), <http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20020301faessay7974/david-hoffman/beyond- public-diplomacy.html>.

            18. Pollock, The Arab Street, p. 1.

            19. Asef Bayat, "The 'Street' and the Politics of Dissent in the Arab World", Middle East Report 226 (2003), <http://www.merip.org/mer/mer226/226_bayat.html>.

            20. Bayat, "The 'Street' and the Politics of Dissent in the Arab World."

            21. El Oifi, "Influence without Power", p. 74.

            22. Herbert Asher, Polling and the Public: What Every Citizen should Know (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998), pp. 20-21.

            23. Daniel Brumberg, "Democratization in the Arab World: The Trap of Liberalized Autocracy," Journal of Democracy 13.4 (October 2002), p. 56.

            24. Brumberg, "Democratization in the Arab World"; Larry Diamond, "Elections without Democracy: Thinking about Hybrid Regimes", Journal of Democracy 13.2 (2002), pp. 21-35.

            25. Mazen Hashem, "Understanding the Attitudes of Arabs toward 'America': The Underutilization of Class", Arab Studies Quarterly 27.1-2 (2005), p. 71.

            26. <http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/html/ pdf/Testimony-20070503-Pollock.pdf>, p. 2.

            27. Marc Lynch, Voices of the New Arab Public: Iraq, Al Jazeera, and Middle East Politics Today (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), pp. 66-68; Amr Hamzawy, "The Real 'Arab Street'," The Washington Post, (6 February 2005), p. B7; Robert M. Entman, Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and Foreign U.S. Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004); John Zogby, "Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform", Are we Listening to the Arab Street?, (8 October 2002), p. 104, <http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_house_hearings&docid=f:88885.pdf>; Yigal, Carmon, "What Makes the Arab Street Rage: Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform", Are we Listening to the Arab Street? (8 October 2002), p. 125, <http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_house_hear ings&docid=f:88885.pdf>; Robert Satloff, "Survey Says: Polls and the Muslim World" New Republic Online (30 September 2005), <http:www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC06.php?CID=873>; Pollock, The Arab Street, pp. 21-27; Kifher, "The New Power of Arab Public Opinion"; Adam Powell, "No independent Arab Media Exist, Say Arab Journalists", Washington Journal (4 March 2004), <http://uscpublicdiplomacy.com/ index.php/newsroom/journal_detail/770/>.

            28. Pollock, The Arab Street, p. 3.

            29. Hilal Khashan, Arabs at the Crossroads: Political Identity and Nationalism (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000), p. 139.

            30. Mohammed El Oifi, "L'Opinion publique arabe entre logiques étatiques et solidarités transnationales", Raisons Politiques 19 (August- September 2005): p. 51.

            31. Gordon Robison, "Whither the Arab Street?", p. 3.

            32. Gary C. Gambill, "Has Saddam Lost the Arab Street?", Middle East Intelligence Bulletin 5.1 (January 2003), <http://www.meib.org/articles/0301_irl.htm>; Ari Melber, "Debunking the Myth of the Arab Street"; Max Abrahms, "Perspective", National Review Online (26 march 2003), <http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC06.php?CID=365>.

            33. "Arab Views", A News Hour with Jim Lehrer (6 September 2002), <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec02/views_9-06.html>.

            34. Ari Melber, "Debunking the Myth of the Arab Street", Baltimore Sun (31 August 2003), <http://www.topdog04.com/000364.html>.

            35. Daniel Pipes, "Where's the Arab 'Street'", CNN: Lou Dobbs Moneyline (8 May 2003), <http://www.danielpipes.org/article/1093>.

            36. Jonathan Schanzer, "The Arab Street and the War: Are Regimes in Control?", The Washington Institute for Near East Policy Watch 729 (21 March 2003), <http://washingtoninstitute.org/watch/policywatch/policywatch2003/729.htm>.

            37. Shibley Telhami, "Public Opinion could Flare out of Control in Arab Nations," San Jose Mercury News (7 April 2002). < http://www.brookings.edu/views/op-ed/telhami/20020407.htm>. Michelle Goldberg, "The Arab Street Explodes" (22 March 2003), <http://dir.salon.com/story/news/feature/2003/03/22/arab_street/index.html>.

            38. Telhami, "Public Opinion could Flare out of Control." Salamah Namat, "Les pressions exercées par 'la foule arabe islamique': un myth," Al Hayat (19 January 2002), <http://www.memri.org/ bin/french/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP33402>.

            39. Gary C. Gambill, "Has Saddam Lost the Arab Street?"; Ari Melber, "Debunking the Myth of the Arab Street."

            40. David Pollock, "Arab Public Opinion", p. 2.

            41. Shaker Al Nabulsi, The Arab Street: The Levant and Egypt (Beirut: Arab Studies and Publication Center, 2003), p. 8.

            42. Al Nabulsi, The Arab Street, p. 9.

            43. K.P. Stratford-Wright, "Public Opinion, the Media, Informations, Propaganda and the Function of Media Operations, ARRC Journal (Winter 2004), <http://www.arrc.nato.int/journal/winter04/media.htm>.

            44. Schanzer, "The Arab Street and the War: Are the Arab Regimes in Control", Policy Watch 729 (21 March 2003), <http://www. washingtoninstitute.org/watch/Policywatch/index.htm#2003>.

            45. Laurent Murawiec, "Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform", Are we Listening to the Arab Street? (8 October 2002), pp. 117-20, <http://frwebgate. access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_house_hearings&docid= f:88885.pdf>.

            46. Murawiec, "Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security," p. 118. Namat, "Les pressions exercées par 'la foule arabe islamique'."

            47. Dale F. Eickelman, "The Arab 'Street' and the Middle East's Democracy Deficit." Naval War College Review 40.4 (2002), p. 45.

            48. Murawiec, "Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security," p. 118. Namat, "Les pressions exercées par 'la foule arabe islamique'."

            49. Al Nabulsi, The Arab Street, p. 11.

            50. Murawiec, "Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security", p. 118.

            51. Joseph Puder, "Examining the Arab Street", The Evening Bulletin (10 August 2006), <http://www.thebulletin.us/site/news.cfm?newsid= 17033423&BRD=2737&PAG=461&dept_id=578325&rfi=6>.

            52. Barry Rubin, "The Real Roots of Arab Anti-Americanism", Foreign Affairs 81.6 (2002), pp. 73-74.

            53. Rubin, "The Real Roots of Arab Anti-Americanism", p. 74.

            54. Jess T. Ford before the Subcommittee on International Organizations, Human Rights, and Oversight House Committee on Foreign Affairs (26 April 2007), <www.goa.gov/new.items/d07795t.pdf>.

            55. Pollock, The Arab Street, pp. 9-11.

            56. Dale F. Eickelman, "The Arab 'Street' and the Middle East's Democracy Deficit", p. 39.

            57. Larbi Sidiki, "Popular Uprising and Arab Democratization", International Journal of Middle East Studies 32 (2000), p. 79.

            58. Sidiki, "Popular Uprising and Arab Democratization", p. 86.

            59. Sidiki, "Popular Uprising and Arab Democratization", p. 88.

            60. Tom Pierre Najem and Martin Hetherington (eds), Good Governance in the Middle East Oil Monarchies (London: RoutledgeCurson, 2003).

            61. Sidiki, "Popular Uprising and Arab Democratization", p. 89.

            62. Sidiki, "Popular Uprising and Arab Democratization", p. 89.

            63. Sidiki, "Popular Uprising and Arab Democratization", p. 80.

            64. Pollock, The Arab Street, pp. 9-11.

            65. Pollock, The Arab Street, pp. 3-9.

            66. Ross, "Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security," pp. 12-13

            67. Telhami, "Arab Public Opinion and the Gulf War," pp. 437, 451.

            68. Amany Radwan, "Anger on the Arab Street", Time (5 April 2002), <www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,227255,00.html>.

            69. Dale F. Eickelman, "The Arab 'Street and the Middle East's Democracy Deficit", p. 46.

            70. Furia and Lucas, "Determinants of Arab Public Opinion on Foreign Relations," p. 603.

            71. Shibley Telhami, "Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security," p. 53.

            72. David Pollock, "Arab Public Opinion", p. 2. See also Anthony Shahid, "Across Arab World, A Widening Rift", Washington Post (12 February 2007), p. Al, <www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2007/02/11/AR2007021101328.html>.

            73. Pollock, The Arab Street, pp. 11-12.

            74. Mark Tessler and Dan Corstange, "How Should Americans Understand Arab and Muslim Public Opinion Attitudes: Combating Stereotypes with Public Opinion Data from the Middle East," Journal of Social Affairs 19.76 (2002), pp. 13-34.

            75. Shibley Telhami, "What Arab Public Opinion Thinks of U.S. Policy", The Brookings Institute (12 December 2005), <http://brookings.edu/fp/saban/events/20051212.htm>.

            76. Pollock, The Arab Street, p. xii.

            77. Marc Lynch, Voices of the New Arab Public, pp. 56-57.

            78. Eric C. Nisbet, Matthew C. Nisbet, Dietram A. Scheufele, and James E. Shanahan, "Public Diplomacy, Television News, and Muslim Opinion," Press/Politics 92 (2004), p. 14.

            79. Ross, "Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security," pp. 6-7.

            80. Marcello Foa, "Latest Coup from the 600 Experts of the Media War: The U.S. Communication Strategy", European Journalism Observatory, <http://www.ejo.ch/analysis/publicrelations/SpinCasaBianca_en.html>.

            81. Nisbet et al, "Public Diplomacy, Television news, and Muslim Opinion," 2004, pp. 15-17.

            82. Harold C. Pachios, "Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform", Are we Listening to the Arab Street?, (8 October 2002), p. 22, <http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_house_hearings&docid=f:88885.pdf>.

            83. Nisbet et al, "Public Diplomacy, Television News, and Muslim Opinion," 2004, 15-17.

            84. Mohammed El Nawawy, "US Pubic Diplomacy in the Arab World: The News Credibility of Radio Sawa and Television Al Hurra," Global Media and Communication 2.2 (2006): p. 188.

            85. Zogby International, "Arab Nations 'Impressions of America' Poll," (19 April 2002), <http://www.zogby.com>. Shibley Telhami, "Arab Public Opinion: A Survey in Six Countries," San Jose Mercury, (16 March 2003), <http://www.bsos.umd.edu/sadat/pub/oped/Arab%20public%20opinion%20a%2 0survey%20in%20six%20countries.htm>; Shibley Telhami, "Arab Public Opinion Survey," (2003), <http://www.bsos.umd/sadat/pub/survey2003.htm>; Robert Younes, "Arab Public Opinion of U.S. Takes a Nosedive," Washington Report on Middle East Affairs 22. 4 (2003): p. 73-75.

            86. Lynch, Voices of the New Arab Public.

            87. Fandy, (Un)Civil War of Words, p. 45.

            88. Mohammed El Oifi, "Faire de la politique par les médias dans le monde Arabe", Maghreb-Machrek 912 (Fall 2007), p. 83.

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