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      Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins.

      The Journal of Immunology Author Choice
      Animals, Antigens, Surface, analysis, Cell Division, Cell Line, Clone Cells, classification, immunology, metabolism, Colorimetry, Epitopes, Growth Substances, physiology, Interferon-gamma, biosynthesis, Interleukin-2, Interleukin-3, Interleukin-4, Lymphocyte Activation, Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed, Lymphokines, isolation & purification, Mast Cells, cytology, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred CBA, Proteins, T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer, Tetrazolium Salts, Thiazoles

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          Abstract

          A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. Clones representing each type of T cell were characterized, and the pattern of lymphokine activities was consistent within each set. The secreted proteins induced by Con A were analyzed by biosynthetic labeling and SDS gel electrophoresis, and significant differences were seen between the two groups of T cell line. Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. Examples of both types of T cell were also specific for or restricted by the I region of the MHC, and the surface marker phenotype of the majority of both types was Ly-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+, Both types of helper T cell could provide help for B cells, but the nature of the help differed. TH1 cells were found among examples of T cell clones specific for chicken RBC and mouse alloantigens. TH2 cells were found among clones specific for mouse alloantigens, fowl gamma-globulin, and KLH. The relationship between these two types of T cells and previously described subsets of T helper cells is discussed.

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